How to format your references using the Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, Budget crisis forces hard choices on US high-energy physics, Nature 404(6781), 909–910 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
O.-K. Teh and I. Moore, An ARF-GEF acting at the Golgi and in selective endocytosis in polarized plant cells, Nature 448(7152), 493–496 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Gerstein, N. Lan, and R. Jansen, Proteomics. Integrating interactomes, Science 295(5553), 284–287 (2002).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
K. Yuki, Y. Yoshida, R. Inagaki, H. Hiai, and M. Noda, E-cadherin-downregulation and RECK-upregulation are coupled in the non-malignant epithelial cell line MCF10A but not in multiple carcinoma-derived cell lines, Sci. Rep. 4, 4568 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Reinke, Inorganic Nanostructures (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2012).
An edited book
M. Leitner (ed.), Crime Modeling and Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
S. Behar, J. Estrada, V. Hernández, and D. León, Smoothing of Polygonal Chains for 2D Shape Representation Using a G 2-Continuous Cubic A-Spline, in Progress in Pattern Recognition, Image Analysis and Applications: 10th Iberoamerican Congress on Pattern Recognition, CIARP 2005, Havana, Cuba, November 15-18, 2005. Proceedings, edited by A. Sanfeliu and M.L. Cortés (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005), pp. 42–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Physics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Solar Panels Could Come With Built-In Storage, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Health and Human Services’ Estimate of Health Care Cost Savings Resulting from the Use of Information Technology (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.R. Poyaoan-Linzaga, The effects of patient communication in early intervention for falls among the Medicare patients (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Viceroy’s House, New York Times C9 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Physics
AbbreviationMed. Phys.
ISSN (print)0094-2405
ScopeGeneral Medicine

Other styles