How to format your references using the Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M. Hawkins, Organic chemistry: Streamlining drug synthesis, Nature 520(7547), 302–303 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Roos and C.C. Winterbourn, Immunology. Lethal weapons, Science 296(5568), 669–671 (2002).
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Bunge, S.S. Epstein, and D.G. Peterson, Comment on “Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil,” Science 313(5789), 918; author reply 918 (2006).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
K.S. Novoselov, A.K. Geim, S.V. Morozov, et al., Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films, Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.S. Brodsky and B. Stanley, The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Primer (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013).
An edited book
H. Holden, Front Tracking for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws, 2nd ed. 2015 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015).
A chapter in an edited book
M.A. Sahraian and E.-W. Radue, T1 Hypointense Lesions (Black Holes), in MRI Atlas of MS Lesions, edited by E.-W. Radü and M.A. Sahraian (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Physics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Science Knowledge Has Almost No Effect On Republican Beliefs, According To Survey, IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Children’s Television Act: FCC Could Improve Efforts to Oversee Enforcement and Provide Public Information (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.S. Warner, The narrative structure of children’s books used in language therapy: An analysis (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Steven Lee Myers; and Joyce H. Man contributed reporting for this article, Emphasizing Creativity, Not Collectivity, New York Times B7 (2005).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Physics
AbbreviationMed. Phys.
ISSN (print)0094-2405
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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