How to format your references using the Medical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Gong, China’s new leaders must keep science in focus, Nature 491(7423), 161 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
P.S. Hall and C. Kincaid, Diapiric flow at subduction zones: a recipe for rapid transport, Science 292(5526), 2472–2475 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Yamashita, T. Hige, and T. Takahashi, Vesicle endocytosis requires dynamin-dependent GTP hydrolysis at a fast CNS synapse, Science 307(5706), 124–127 (2005).
A journal article with 7 or more authors
S.B. Choi, C. Wang, D.G. Muench, et al., Messenger RNA targeting of rice seed storage proteins to specific ER subdomains, Nature 407(6805), 765–767 (2000).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Ghez, A Primer of Diffusion Problems (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005).
An edited book
H.M. Staines and S. Krishna (eds.), Treatment and Prevention of Malaria: Antimalarial Drug Chemistry, Action and Use (Springer, Basel, 2012).
A chapter in an edited book
T.S. Kern, Animal Models of Diabetic Retinopathy, in Retinal and Choroidal Angiogenesis, edited by J.S. Penn (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2008), pp. 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Physics.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, A New Estimation Of The Mass Of The Milky Way, IFLScience (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Reports Issued in October 1987 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.D. Parker, Uncovering Three Trumpet Works of Sofia Gubaidulina (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, The City of Lights, When It Was First Lighted, New York Times CT8 (2016).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Physics
AbbreviationMed. Phys.
ISSN (print)0094-2405
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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