How to format your references using the Computational Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computational Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kieffer, J.: Materials science. Not too hot to handle. Science. 299, 1998–1999 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Miller, V., Savage, M.: Changes in seismic anisotropy after volcanic eruptions: evidence from Mount Ruapehu. Science. 293, 2231–2233 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J., Hannon, G.J., Beach, D.H.: Risky immortalization by telomerase. Nature. 405, 755–756 (2000)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, L., Guo, L., Li, Z., Zhang, H., Lin, J., Huang, J., Jin, S., Chen, X.: Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges. Sci. Rep. 3, 2599 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Korn, G.A.: Advanced Dynamic-System Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2013)
An edited book
Leeuwe, M.A. van, Stefels, J., Belviso, S., Lancelot, C., Verity, P.G., Gieskes, W.W.C. eds: Phaeocystis, major link in the biogeochemical cycling of climate-relevant elements. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2007)
A chapter in an edited book
Borst, D.E., Boatright, J.H., Nickerson, J.M.: Molecular Biology of IRBP and Its Role in the Visual Cycle. In: Tombran-Tink, J. and Barnstable, C.J. (eds.) Visual Transduction and Non-Visual Light Perception. pp. 87–122. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computational Geosciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.: Incredibly Rare Double Eclipse Of The Sun By Earth And The Moon Snapped By Spacecraft,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: House of Representatives’ Amendment to the Energy Research and Development Administration’s Authorization Bill for Fiscal Year 1978. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1977)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCain, A.K.: Influence of market setting and time of purchase on counts of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and coliform and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in beef, pork, and chicken in Vietnam, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., Cooper, M.: Big Teachers’ Fund to Sell Its Gun Shares, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputational Geosciences
AbbreviationComput. Geosci.
ISSN (print)1420-0597
ISSN (online)1573-1499
ScopeComputational Theory and Mathematics
Computer Science Applications
Computers in Earth Sciences
Computational Mathematics

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