How to format your references using the Medical Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Underwood, E., 2015. Neuroscience. A faster, brighter picture of brain cells in action. Science 350, 895.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meyer, J.R., Kassen, R., 2007. The effects of competition and predation on diversification in a model adaptive radiation. Nature 446, 432–435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amodeo, G.A., Rudolph, M.J., Tong, L., 2007. Crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homologue SNF1. Nature 449, 492–495.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xue, C., Du, G.-Q., Chen, L.-J., Ren, J.-G., Sun, J.-X., Bai, F.-W., Yang, S.-T., 2014. A carbon nanotube filled polydimethylsiloxane hybrid membrane for enhanced butanol recovery. Sci. Rep. 4, 5925.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal, H.P., 2012. Utopias. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Bendsøe, M.P., Olhoff, N., Sigmund, O. (Eds.), 2006. IUTAM Symposium on Topological Design Optimization of Structures, Machines and Materials: Status and Perspectives, Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Micarelli, A., Sciarrone, F., Marinilli, M., 2007. Web Document Modeling, in: Brusilovsky, P., Kobsa, A., Nejdl, W. (Eds.), The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 155–192.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Now We Can Edit Life Itself, We Need To Ask How We Should Use Such Technology [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Opportunity To Improve Indian Education in Schools Operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (No. B-161468). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jobanputra, M.C., 2002. Investigation of Organic Thin Films for Application in Electro-optic Devices (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Film Series. New York Times C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Underwood, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer and Kassen, 2007; Underwood, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meyer and Kassen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Xue et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Photonics
ISSN (print)2213-8846

Other styles