How to format your references using the Medical Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soden, B.J., 2000. Atmospheric physics. Enlightening water vapour. Nature 406, 247–248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kimmins, S., Sassone-Corsi, P., 2005. Chromatin remodelling and epigenetic features of germ cells. Nature 434, 583–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Head, I.M., Jones, D.M., Larter, S.R., 2003. Biological activity in the deep subsurface and the origin of heavy oil. Nature 426, 344–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakatani, K., Ishikawa, H., Aono, S., Mizutani, Y., 2014. Identification of essential histidine residues involved in heme binding and Hemozoin formation in heme detoxification protein from Plasmodium falciparum. Sci. Rep. 4, 6137.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, B., Wang, X., 2014. Chaos Analysis and Chaotic EMI Suppression of DC-DC Converters. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Matyáš, V., Fischer-Hübner, S., Cvrček, D., Švenda, P. (Eds.), 2009. The Future of Identity in the Information Society: 4th IFIP WG 9.2, 9.6/11.6, 11.7/FIDIS International Summer School, Brno, Czech Republic, September 1-7, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartl, R., Frisch, B., 2009. Subgroups of Osteoporosis, in: Frisch, B. (Ed.), Osteoporosis: Diagnosis, Prevention, Therapy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. 3D Printed Body Parts Go Mainstream [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Working Capital Funds: Three Agency Perspectives (No. AIMD-94-121). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron, J., 2017. The Use of Evidence Based Interventions in the Classroom for Students with Disabilities (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K., 2001. The Mayors Slept Here: Gracie Mansion Is Just the Latest. New York Times 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Soden, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Kimmins and Sassone-Corsi, 2005; Soden, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kimmins and Sassone-Corsi, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Nakatani et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Photonics
ISSN (print)2213-8846

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