How to format your references using the Medical Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis, M.E., 2002. Ordered porous materials for emerging applications. Nature 417, 813–821.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schumacher, M.A., Funnell, B.E., 2005. Structures of ParB bound to DNA reveal mechanism of partition complex formation. Nature 438, 516–519.
A journal article with 3 authors
Westover, K.D., Bushnell, D.A., Kornberg, R.D., 2004. Structural basis of transcription: separation of RNA from DNA by RNA polymerase II. Science 303, 1014–1016.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bhargava, V., Head, S.R., Ordoukhanian, P., Mercola, M., Subramaniam, S., 2014. Technical variations in low-input RNA-seq methodologies. Sci. Rep. 4, 3678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birinyi, L., 2013. The Master Trader. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Petrie, C., Margaria, T., Lausen, H., Zaremba, M. (Eds.), 2009. Semantic Web Services Challenge: Results from the First Year, Semantic Web And Beyond, Computing for Human Experience. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Jankowski, P.P., O’Brien, R.A., Cornwall, G.B., Taylor, W.R., 2014. Intraoperative Neurophysiology Monitoring, in: Phillips, F., Lieberman, I., Polly, D. (Eds.), Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Photonics.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Metallic Glass Alloys Could Be Stronger Than Steel But As Malleable As Putty [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. [Comments on the Federal Communications Commission’s Implementation of Section 254(h) of the Communications Act of 1934] (No. B-278820). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armstrong, A., 2008. Tactic-Based Learning for collective learning systems (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R., 1993. Mortality Tale. New York Times 711.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davis, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Davis, 2002; Schumacher and Funnell, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schumacher and Funnell, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bhargava et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Photonics
ISSN (print)2213-8846

Other styles