How to format your references using the Medical Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kündig, P., 2006. Chemistry. The future of organic synthesis. Science 314, 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaleeba, J.A.R., Berger, E.A., 2006. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion-entry receptor: cystine transporter xCT. Science 311, 1921–1924.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuang, Y.-C., Wu, J.-Y., Lin, M.-F., 2013. Electric field dependence of excitation spectra in AB-stacked bilayer graphene. Sci. Rep. 3, 1368.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, W., Pohl, T., Rost, J.M., Rittenhouse, S.T., Sadeghpour, H.R., Nipper, J., Butscher, B., Balewski, J.B., Bendkowsky, V., Löw, R., Pfau, T., 2011. A homonuclear molecule with a permanent electric dipole moment. Science 334, 1110–1114.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rubin, A.B., 2014. Fundamentals of Biophysics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Liu, H., Kubota, N., Zhu, X., Dillmann, R., Zhou, D. (Eds.), 2015. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 8th International Conference, ICIRA 2015, Portsmouth, UK, August 24-27, 2015, Proceedings, Part III, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Christen, P., Vatsalan, D., Fu, Z., 2015. Advanced Record Linkage Methods and Privacy Aspects for Population Reconstruction—A Survey and Case Studies, in: Bloothooft, G., Christen, P., Mandemakers, K., Schraagen, M. (Eds.), Population Reconstruction. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 87–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Curing Baldness May Just Be About Having Enough Pluck [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. The National School Lunch Program: Is It Working? (No. PAD-77-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeLaney, B., 2015. Youth center for improving health and wellness (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L., 2010. Reviving a Poor Neighborhood for Its Inhabitants. New York Times B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kündig, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Kündig, 2006, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaleeba and Berger, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Photonics
ISSN (print)2213-8846

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