How to format your references using the Medical Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holden, C., 2000. DIVERSITY: Parity as a Goal Sparks Bitter Battle. Science 289, 380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kemp, C., Regier, T., 2012. Kinship categories across languages reflect general communicative principles. Science 336, 1049–1054.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feng, Y., Zhang, S., Huang, X., 2014. A robust TALENs system for highly efficient mammalian genome editing. Sci. Rep. 4, 3632.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Han, R., Shimamoto, T., Hirose, T., Ree, J.-H., Ando, J.-I., 2007. Ultralow friction of carbonate faults caused by thermal decomposition. Science 316, 878–881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pan, Y., Wang, J., Li, M., 2013. Algorithmic and Artificial Intelligence Methods for Protein Bioinformatics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Murphy, N., Ellis, G.F.R., O’Connor, T. (Eds.), 2009. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will, Understanding Complex Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Naumov, A.D., Timokhina, N.I., Litvinchuk, A.V., Vereshchako, G.G., Khodosovskaya, A.M., Sushko, S.N., Kadukova, E.M., 2013. Radioprotective Properties of Selenomethionine with Methionine, Extracts from Basidium Fungi and Exogenous DNA, in: Pierce, G.N., Mizin, V.I., Omelchenko, A. (Eds.), Advanced Bioactive Compounds Countering the Effects of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Agents: Strategies to Counter Biological Damage, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Photonics.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. This 12 Black Dot Illusion Is Blowing A Lot Of Minds [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. High Speed Passenger Rail: Future Development Will Depend on Addressing Financial and Other Challenges and Establishing a Clear Federal Role (No. GAO-09-317). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nagarajah, B.A., 2017. The influence of professional training and personal factors on technostress: A correlational study (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oren, M.B., 2017. The Iran Deal Isn’t Worth Saving. New York Times A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holden, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Holden, 2000; Kemp and Regier, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kemp and Regier, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Photonics
ISSN (print)2213-8846

Other styles