How to format your references using the Medical Photonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Photonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sykes, M.V., 2008. Planetary science. The planet debate continues. Science 319, 1765.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray, A.W., Marks, D., 2001. Can sequencing shed light on cell cycling? Nature 409, 844–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poulton, S.W., Fralick, P.W., Canfield, D.E., 2004. The transition to a sulphidic ocean approximately 1.84 billion years ago. Nature 431, 173–177.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shi, D.-T., Wei, X.-L., Sheng, Y., Zang, Y., He, X.-P., Xie, J., Liu, G., Tang, Y., Li, J., Chen, G.-R., 2014. Substitution pattern reverses the fluorescence response of coumarin glycoligands upon coordination with silver (I). Sci. Rep. 4, 4252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen, K., 2015. Performance Evaluation by Simulation and Analysis with Applications to Computer Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mattei, P. (Ed.), 2016. Public Accountability and Health Care Governance: Public Management Reforms Between Austerity and Democracy. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Bailey, B., 2009. Can Mutation Analysis Help Fix Our Broken Coverage Metrics?, in: Chockler, H., Hu, A.J. (Eds.), Hardware and Software: Verification and Testing: 4th International Haifa Verification Conference, HVC 2008, Haifa, Israel, October 27-30, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 5–5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Photonics.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. How Much Would It Cost To Be Batman? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Comments on S. 881 and GAO Report on Small-Business Innovation Initiatives (No. 115776). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alnuaimi, A.N., 2017. The Outside-In Method for Sustainable Design Within the Built Environment Spatial Layers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. Trump, in Latest Bout With Media, Conjures Physical Fight With a Foe. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sykes, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Murray and Marks, 2001; Sykes, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Marks, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Photonics
ISSN (print)2213-8846

Other styles