How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eckhardt, B., 2011. Applied physics. A critical point for turbulence. Science 333, 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Winter, W., Oxnard, C.E., 2001. Evolutionary radiations and convergences in the structural organization of mammalian brains. Nature 409, 710–714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Iwasawa, T., Hooley, R.J., Rebek, J., Jr, 2007. Stabilization of labile carbonyl addition intermediates by a synthetic receptor. Science 317, 493–496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, H., Ye, J., Hu, P., Wei, F., Du, K., Wang, N., Ba, T., Feng, S., Kloc, C., 2014. Fluorination of metal phthalocyanines: single-crystal growth, efficient N-channel organic field-effect transistors, and structure-property relationships. Sci. Rep. 4, 7573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ratzliff, A., Unutzer, J., Katon, W., Stephens, K.A., 2015. Integrated Care. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fujita, S., 2009. Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter: Superconductivity. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Nguyen, D.C., Perini, A., Tonella, P., 2008. A Goal-Oriented Software Testing Methodology, in: Luck, M., Padgham, L. (Eds.), Agent-Oriented Software Engineering VIII: 8th International Workshop, AOSE 2007, Honolulu, HI, USA, May 14, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 58–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Do You Really Want To Know What’s Lurking In Your Genome? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. Issues and Anticipated Results (No. D06981). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitman, S., 2012. Operational risk and financial institution leaders’ decision making: A quantitative descriptive correlation study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sachs, S., 2000. Egyptian’s Arrest Seen as Penalty for Criticism. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eckhardt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (de Winter and Oxnard, 2001; Eckhardt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Winter and Oxnard, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles