How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A., 2002. CERN collider project back on track. Nature 420, 721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnold, K., Zuberbühler, K., 2006. Language evolution: semantic combinations in primate calls. Nature 441, 303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xuereb, A., Ulbricht, H., Paternostro, M., 2013. Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence. Sci. Rep. 3, 3378.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, Y., Kuybeda, O., de Waal, P.W., Mukherjee, S., Van Eps, N., Dutka, P., Zhou, X.E., Bartesaghi, A., Erramilli, S., Morizumi, T., Gu, X., Yin, Y., Liu, P., Jiang, Y., Meng, X., Zhao, G., Melcher, K., Ernst, O.P., Kossiakoff, A.A., Subramaniam, S., Xu, H.E., 2018. Publisher Correction: Cryo-EM structure of human rhodopsin bound to an inhibitory G protein. Nature 561, E44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiens, J.A., 2016. Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chatterjee, M., Kashfi, K. (Eds.), 2012. Cell Signaling & Molecular Targets in Cancer, 1st ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Rawlings, J.B., 2015. Moving Horizon Estimation, in: Baillieul, J., Samad, T. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Systems and Control. Springer, London, pp. 799–804.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Zika Virus Detected In Sperm For A Record Six Months After Infection [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. National Airspace System: Assessment of FAA’s Efforts to Augment the Global Positioning System (No. T-RCED-95-219). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borchardt, G.M., 2013. Making D.C. Democracy’s Capital: Local Activism, the “Federal State”, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Washington, D.C (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1993. The New White House Refrain: Please Hang Up and Dial Again. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott, 2002; Arnold and Zuberbühler, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Arnold and Zuberbühler, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles