How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Solow, A.R., 2015. CLIMATE CHANGE. Extreme weather, made by us? Science 349, 1444–1445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillon, J., Yakir, D., 2001. Influence of carbonic anhydrase activity in terrestrial vegetation on the 18O content of atmospheric CO2. Science 291, 2584–2587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davis, M.C., Dahn, R.D., Shubin, N.H., 2007. An autopodial-like pattern of Hox expression in the fins of a basal actinopterygian fish. Nature 447, 473–476.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frank, M.R., Mitchell, L., Dodds, P.S., Danforth, C.M., 2013. Happiness and the patterns of life: a study of geolocated tweets. Sci. Rep. 3, 2625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lagraña, F., 2016. E-mail and Behavioral Changes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ischebeck, F., 2005. Ideals and Reality: Projective Modules and Number of Generators of Ideals, Springer Monographs in Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Karuppusamy, S., Jerome, J., 2014. Real-Time Video Based Face Identification Using Fast Sparse Representation and Incremental Learning, in: Thampi, S.M., Gelbukh, A., Mukhopadhyay, J. (Eds.), Advances in Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Study Reveals How Traveling To Mars Could Damage Astronaut’s Brains [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Educational Programs in the Public Schools of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (No. 092764). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McClenahan, A., 2017. The Impact of Media Promulgated Fear on the Psyche: Love Will Prevail (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Jacoby, S., 2016. Sick and Tired of ‘God Bless America.’ New York Times SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Solow, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Gillon and Yakir, 2001; Solow, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gillon and Yakir, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Frank et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

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