How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilcove, D.S., 2005. Ecology. Rediscovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker. Science 308, 1422–1423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Page, M.T., Hough, S.E., 2014. The New Madrid Seismic Zone: not dead yet. Science 343, 762–764.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu, B., Wang, Q., Tian, Y., 2013. Bulk modulus for polar covalent crystals. Sci. Rep. 3, 3068.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sijen, T., Steiner, F.A., Thijssen, K.L., Plasterk, R.H.A., 2007. Secondary siRNAs result from unprimed RNA synthesis and form a distinct class. Science 315, 244–247.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Christophers, B., 2013. Banking Across Boundaries. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Vries, M.J. de, Hansson, S.O., Meijers, A.W.M. (Eds.), 2013. Norms in Technology, Philosophy of Engineering and Technology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Berezansky, Y.M., Pulemyotov, A.D., 2008. Image of a Jacobi Field, in: Ball, J.A., Eidelman, Y., Helton, J.W., Olshevsky, V., Rovnyak, J. (Eds.), Recent Advances in Matrix and Operator Theory, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Seabirds Feast On Seafood Buffet Thanks To Jellyfish Blooms [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Aircraft Noise: Status and Management of FAA’s West Coast Plan (No. RCED-89-84). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grosso, T., 2015. Exploring How Older Adults Who Qualify for the Association on Aging with Developmental Disabilities (AADD) Programs and Services Learn to Successfully Age in Place (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer, M., 2013. C Train Cafe? The M.T.A. May Put Up a Fight. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wilcove, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Page and Hough, 2014; Wilcove, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Page and Hough, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sijen et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

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