How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coffman, R.L., 2010. Immunology. The origin of TH2 responses. Science 328, 1116–1117.
A journal article with 2 authors
Errami, M., Garner, H., 2008. A tale of two citations. Nature 451, 397–399.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matzke, M., Matzke, A.J., Kooter, J.M., 2001. RNA: guiding gene silencing. Science 293, 1080–1083.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, Y., Szostkiewicz, I., Korte, A., Moes, D., Yang, Y., Christmann, A., Grill, E., 2009. Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors. Science 324, 1064–1068.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gleeson, K., 2008. The Personal Efficiency Program. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pritchard, R.M.O., Klumpp, M., Teichler, U. (Eds.), 2015. Diversity and Excellence in Higher Education: Can the Challenges be Reconciled? SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Stephens, F.O., Aigner, K.R., 2016. Signs of Cancer: Local and General, in: Aigner, K.R. (Ed.), Basics of Oncology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 53–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Our Brain Sees Known Words As Pictures [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Secret Service Has More Computer Capacity Than It Needs (No. GGD-81-43). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ryan, H.L., 2009. Normalizing happiness: The rhetoric of depression in Direct -to -Consumer advertising (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2014. Tennessee Set to Drop Tax. New York Times B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Coffman, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Coffman, 2010; Errami and Garner, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Errami and Garner, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

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