How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmichael, M., 2013. Drug safety: double jeopardy. Nature 498, S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jacobson, L.D., Herbert, J.M., 2011. Comment on “Does the hydrated electron occupy a cavity?” Science 331, 1387; author reply 1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauf, S., Waizenegger, I.C., Peters, J.M., 2001. Cohesin cleavage by separase required for anaphase and cytokinesis in human cells. Science 293, 1320–1323.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ng, F.-L., Jaafar, M.M., Phang, S.-M., Chan, Z., Salleh, N.A., Azmi, S.Z., Yunus, K., Fisher, A.C., Periasamy, V., 2014. Reduced graphene oxide anodes for potential application in algae biophotovoltaic platforms. Sci. Rep. 4, 7562.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moreau, N., 2013. Tools for Signal Compression. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Pasila, F., Tanoto, Y., Lim, R., Santoso, M., Pah, N.D. (Eds.), 2016. Proceedings of Second International Conference on Electrical Systems, Technology and Information 2015 (ICESTI 2015), 1st ed. 2016. ed, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Ofak, L., 2015. Application of the Aarhus Convention in Southeast Europe, in: Rodin, S., Perišin, T. (Eds.), Judicial Application of International Law in Southeast Europe. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 43–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Rock From Russia Contains 30,000 Diamonds [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. Assessment of Audits of Bilingual Education Grants in Texas by U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Inspector General (No. AFMD-85-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martin, J.C., 2008. Tbx18 and the epicardium in cardiac development and regenerative medicine (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. A Cinderella Emerged, Then Quickly Lost Its Way. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmichael, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Carmichael, 2013; Jacobson and Herbert, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jacobson and Herbert, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Ng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles