How to format your references using the Climate Services citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Climate Services. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johns-Krull, C.M., 2014. Astrophysics: Secret ingredient exposed. Nature 514, 571–572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helffrich, G.R., Wood, B.J., 2001. The Earth’s mantle. Nature 412, 501–507.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shelly, D.R., Beroza, G.C., Ide, S., 2007. Non-volcanic tremor and low-frequency earthquake swarms. Nature 446, 305–307.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hierro, A., Sun, J., Rusnak, A.S., Kim, J., Prag, G., Emr, S.D., Hurley, J.H., 2004. Structure of the ESCRT-II endosomal trafficking complex. Nature 431, 221–225.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, T., Grossman, S., 2007. Overcoming Resistant Personality Disorders. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Stollkleemann, S., Welp, M. (Eds.), 2006. Stakeholder Dialogues in Natural Resources Management: Theory and Practice, Environmental Science and Engineering, Environmental Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulton, A.M., Amberman, K.D., 2006. How ant nests increase soil biota richness and abundance: a field experiment, in: Hawksworth, D.L., Bull, A.T. (Eds.), Arthropod Diversity and Conservation, Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Climate Services.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Is Climate Change To Blame For Outbreaks Of Mosquito-Borne Disease? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Federal-Aid Highways: Cost and Oversight of Major Highway and Bridge Projects--Issues and Options (No. GAO-03-764T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lai, J.-P., 2008. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN) As A Molecular Target in Lung Epithelial Wound Repair and Protection (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weber, B., 2016. Henry Worsley, a British Adventurer Trying to Cross Antarctica, Dies at 55. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johns-Krull, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Helffrich and Wood, 2001; Johns-Krull, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helffrich and Wood, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hierro et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClimate Services
AbbreviationClim. Serv.
ISSN (print)2405-8807
ScopeAtmospheric Science
Global and Planetary Change

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