How to format your references using the Computer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L. Cluver, “Children of the AIDS pandemic,” Nature, vol. 474, no. 7349, pp. 27–29, Jun. 2011.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. G. Duncan and A. E. Rivet, “Science education. Science learning progressions,” Science, vol. 339, no. 6118, pp. 396–397, Jan. 2013.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Qvarnström, J. E. Brommer, and L. Gustafsson, “Testing the genetics underlying the co-evolution of mate choice and ornament in the wild,” Nature, vol. 441, no. 7089, pp. 84–86, May 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Drdla, M. Gassner, E. Gingl, and J. Sandkühler, “Induction of synaptic long-term potentiation after opioid withdrawal,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5937, pp. 207–210, Jul. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Fleming and R. Lee, Orthodontic Functional Appliances. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
H. Lagerlund, Ed., Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Doi, K. Fujiwara, T. Kikuchi, and K. Shimomura, “A Modified Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem Under Quasilinear Utility Functions,” in International Trade and Economic Dynamics: Essays in Memory of Koji Shimomura, T. Kamihigashi and L. Zhao, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 19–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Carbon Dioxide Levels Hit Record Of 400ppm,” IFLScience, May 08, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “School Bullying: Legal Protections for Vulnerable Youth Need to Be More Fully Assessed,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-12-785T, Jun. 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. E. Baldasaro, “Person level analysis in latent growth curve models,” Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Sisario, “Coachella Classic,” New York Times, p. B1, Sep. 28, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer
AbbreviationComputer (Long Beach Calif.)
ISSN (print)0018-9162
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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