How to format your references using the Computer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Y. Tokura, “Materials science. Multiferroics as quantum electromagnets,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5779, pp. 1481–1482, Jun. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. W. Brown and T. S. Braver, “Learned predictions of error likelihood in the anterior cingulate cortex,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5712, pp. 1118–1121, Feb. 2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. J. Spencer, T. Osborn, and P. A. Kohl, “Materials science. High-frequency chip connections,” Science, vol. 320, no. 5877, pp. 756–757, May 2008.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1195, Feb. 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. V. Ciobanu, C.-Z. Wang, and K.-M. Ho, Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2013.
An edited book
J. Wang, H. Xiong, Y. Ishikawa, J. Xu, and J. Zhou, Eds., Web-Age Information Management: 14th International Conference, WAIM 2013, Beidaihe, China, June 14-16, 2013. Proceedings, vol. 7923. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Hava and C. Kwok-bun, “Explaining Charisma: A Constructivist View,” in Charismatic Leadership in Singapore: Three Extraordinary People, C. Kwok-bun, Ed. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012, pp. 39–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Scales, Feathers, and Hair All Evolved From A Common Ancestor,” IFLScience, Jun. 24, 2016. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Health Care: Increased Information System Sharing Could Improve Service, Reduce Costs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, IMTEC-93-33BR, Jun. 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. C. Louviere, “Bonds Behind Bars: The Impact of Program Participation on Interpersonal Inmate Connections in Louisiana State Penitentiary,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Protess and M. Goldstein, “Justices Asked to Clarify ‘Benefit’ in Insider Trading,” New York Times, p. B1, Oct. 05, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer
AbbreviationComputer (Long Beach Calif.)
ISSN (print)0018-9162
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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