How to format your references using the Computer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. R. Saibil, “Biochemistry. Machinery to reverse irreversible aggregates,” Science, vol. 339, no. 6123, pp. 1040–1041, Mar. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Strome and R. Lehmann, “Germ versus soma decisions: lessons from flies and worms,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5823, pp. 392–393, Apr. 2007.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.-C. Koschowitz, C. Fischer, and M. Sander, “Evolution. Beyond the rainbow,” Science, vol. 346, no. 6208, pp. 416–418, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C. G. Frank, S. Sanyal, J. S. Rush, C. J. Waechter, and A. K. Menon, “Does Rft1 flip an N-glycan lipid precursor?,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7204, pp. E3-4; discussion E4-5, Jul. 2008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. P. Lado, The Common Fisheries Policy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
A. Colombi Ciacchi, Ed., Contents and Effects of Contracts-Lessons to Learn From The Common European Sales Law, vol. 7. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Ren, J. Song, Z. Ma, and S. Huang, “Towards a Bio-inspired Security Framework for Mission-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Systems: 4th International Symposium, ISICA 2009, Huangshi, China, October 23-25, 2009. Proceedings, Z. Cai, Z. Li, Z. Kang, and Y. Liu, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “The Tropics Are Getting Wetter: The Reason Could Be Clumpy Storms,” IFLScience, Mar. 26, 2015. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Measuring Performance: Strengths and Limitations of Research Indicators,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-97-91, Mar. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. A. Grijalva, “Exploring cultural finance: A phenomenological approach to comparative cultural perceptions of money in Mexico,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Stellin, “Full Picture of Airlines’ Punctuality Is Elusive,” New York Times, p. B1, Feb. 03, 2014.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer
AbbreviationComputer (Long Beach Calif.)
ISSN (print)0018-9162
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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