How to format your references using the Genes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E. Almost in Bloom. Nature 2008, 452, 122–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiseman, B.S.; Werb, Z. Stromal Effects on Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer. Science 2002, 296, 1046–1049.
A journal article with 3 authors
Forde, S.E.; Thompson, J.N.; Bohannan, B.J.M. Adaptation Varies through Space and Time in a Coevolving Host-Parasitoid Interaction. Nature 2004, 431, 841–844.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DiLuzio, W.R.; Turner, L.; Mayer, M.; Garstecki, P.; Weibel, D.B.; Berg, H.C.; Whitesides, G.M. Escherichia Coli Swim on the Right-Hand Side. Nature 2005, 435, 1271–1274.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palmquist, S.R. Comprehensive Commentary on Kant’s Religion within the Bounds of Bare Reason; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781118619599.
An edited book
Alencar, M.S. Communication Systems; Rocha, V.C. da, Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2005; ISBN 9780387254814.
A chapter in an edited book
Rusiñol, M.; Lladós, J. Vectorial Signatures for Symbol Recognition and Spotting. In Symbol Spotting in Digital Libraries: Focused Retrieval over Graphic-rich Document Collections; Lladós, J., Ed.; Springer: London, 2010; pp. 69–88 ISBN 9781849962070.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Extreme Nomadic Waterbirds Fly 2,000 Kilometers to Find Desert Lakes Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Reform: Progress Made; More Needs to Be Done to Complete Actions and Measure Results; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hutson, M.D. Three Essays on Macroeconomic Forecasting. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. October 7-13; Kursk Raised. New York Times 2001, 42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes
AbbreviationGenes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4425

Other styles