How to format your references using the Genes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyers, C. Targeted cancer therapy. Nature 2004, 432, 294–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Labouriau, R.; Amorim, A. Comment on “An association between the kinship and fertility of human couples.” Science 2008, 322, 1634; author reply 1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ainsworth, S.; Prain, V.; Tytler, R. Science education. Drawing to learn in science. Science 2011, 333, 1096–1097.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Semaw, S.; Simpson, S.W.; Quade, J.; Renne, P.R.; Butler, R.F.; McIntosh, W.C.; Levin, N.; Dominguez-Rodrigo, M.; Rogers, M.J. Early Pliocene hominids from Gona, Ethiopia. Nature 2005, 433, 301–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yang, H.; Lee, E.K. Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2016; ISBN 9781118919392.
An edited book
Graph-Theoretic Concepts in Computer Science: 42nd International Workshop, WG 2016, Istanbul, Turkey, June 22-24, 2016, Revised Selected Papers; Heggernes, P., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016; Vol. 9941; ISBN 9783662535356.
A chapter in an edited book
Breitenmoser, A.; Martinoli, A. On Combining Multi-robot Coverage and Reciprocal Collision Avoidance. In Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems: The 12th International Symposium; Chong, N.-Y., Cho, Y.-J., Eds.; Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2016; pp. 49–64 ISBN 9784431558774.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Key And Peele Hilariously Spoof Neil deGrasse Tyson Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: Timely Completion of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Software Is at Risk; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tabares, M. Comprehensive skills program for emancipated foster youth: A grant thesis project. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. Yankees Ride Out Chapman’s Latest Turbulence and Rebuff the Mets Again. New York Times 2017, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes
AbbreviationGenes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4425

Other styles