How to format your references using the Genes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hewitt, G. The Genetic Legacy of the Quaternary Ice Ages. Nature 2000, 405, 907–913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dominy, N.J.; Lucas, P.W. Ecological Importance of Trichromatic Vision to Primates. Nature 2001, 410, 363–366.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oganov, A.R.; Brodholt, J.P.; Price, G.D. The Elastic Constants of MgSiO3 Perovskite at Pressures and Temperatures of the Earth’s Mantle. Nature 2001, 411, 934–937.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, H.-X.; Cao, L.-Z.; Zhao, J.-Q.; Li, Y.-D.; Wang, X.-Q. Extreme Violation of Local Realism with a Hyper-Entangled Four-Photon-Eight-Qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zelinger State. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Demand, N.H. The Mediterranean Context of Early Greek History; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011; ISBN 9781444342369.
An edited book
Max-Plus Linear Stochastic Systems and Perturbation Analysis; Heidergott, B., Ed.; The International Series on Discrete Event Dynamic Systems; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2007; Vol. 16; ISBN 9780387352060.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramanathan, K.; Guan, S.U. Recursive Pattern based Hybrid Supervised Training. In Engineering Evolutionary Intelligent Systems; Abraham, A., Grosan, C., Pedrycz, W., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp. 129–156 ISBN 9783540753957.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Junk Food Rats Ditch Balanced Diet To Eat Just Like Obese People Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Office of Personnel Management: Retirement Systems Modernization Program Faces Numerous Challenges; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cacciola, J.A. A Quantitative Study on Retaining Leadership Talent within a Naval Aviation Squadron. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. A Beachside Rave, by Way of Brooklyn. New York Times 2017, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes
AbbreviationGenes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4425

Other styles