How to format your references using the Genes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lemstra, P.J. Materials science. Confined polymers crystallize. Science 2009, 323, 725–726.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeomans, D.K.; Veverka, J. Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004). Nature 2004, 432, 31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fujisawa, K.; Wrana, J.L.; Culotti, J.G. The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans. Science 2007, 317, 1934–1938.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soma, A.; Onodera, A.; Sugahara, J.; Kanai, A.; Yachie, N.; Tomita, M.; Kawamura, F.; Sekine, Y. Permuted tRNA genes expressed via a circular RNA intermediate in Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Science 2007, 318, 450–453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goossens, F. How to Implement Market Models Using VBA; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781119065838.
An edited book
Community-Built Databases: Research and Development; Pardede, E., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; ISBN 9783642190469.
A chapter in an edited book
Pudenz, K.L. Quantum Computing Meets the Real World. In Unconventional Computation and Natural Computation: 14th International Conference, UCNC 2015, Auckland, New Zealand, August 30 -- September 3, 2015, Proceedings; Calude, C.S., Dinneen, M.J., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 66–70 ISBN 9783319218182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Ancient Long-Necked Marine Reptile Discovered in Alaska Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Science and Technology: Information on Federal Programs and Interagency Efforts That Support Small Businesses Engaged in Manufacturing; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2007;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Petrovic, V. The K(n)-local E n-Adams Spectral Sequence and a Cohomological Approximation of its E2-term. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Inside Hamlet. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes
AbbreviationGenes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4425

Other styles