How to format your references using the Genes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann, K. Anthropology. New Guinea: A Cradle of Agriculture. Science 2003, 301, 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tinel, A.; Tschopp, J. The PIDDosome, a Protein Complex Implicated in Activation of Caspase-2 in Response to Genotoxic Stress. Science 2004, 304, 843–846.
A journal article with 3 authors
Freitag, J.; Ast, J.; Bölker, M. Cryptic Peroxisomal Targeting via Alternative Splicing and Stop Codon Read-through in Fungi. Nature 2012, 485, 522–525.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Groth, A.; Corpet, A.; Cook, A.J.L.; Roche, D.; Bartek, J.; Lukas, J.; Almouzni, G. Regulation of Replication Fork Progression through Histone Supply and Demand. Science 2007, 318, 1928–1931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lednicer, D. Antineoplastic Drugs; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118892572.
An edited book
The Semantic Web. Latest Advances and New Domains: 12th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2015, Portoroz, Slovenia, May 31 -- June 4, 2015. Proceedings; Gandon, F., Sabou, M., Sack, H., d’Amato, C., Cudré-Mauroux, P., Zimmermann, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 9088; ISBN 9783319188171.
A chapter in an edited book
Sharma, R.; Goyal, V. Name Entity Recognition Systems for Hindi Using CRF Approach. In Information Systems for Indian Languages: International Conference, ICISIL 2011, Patiala, India, March 9-11, 2011. Proceedings; Singh, C., Singh Lehal, G., Sengupta, J., Sharma, D.V., Goyal, V., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; pp. 31–35 ISBN 9783642194023.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genes.

Blog post
Fang, J. Birds Adapting to Chernobyl’s Radiation Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Superhighway: An Overview of Technology Challenges; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
So, R.J. Coolie Democracy: U.S.-China Political and Literary Exchange, 1925-1955. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. Too Shocking for Midtown in the 1920s. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGenes
AbbreviationGenes (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-4425

Other styles