How to format your references using the Medical Image Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Image Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ensign, S.A., 2011. Microbiology. Another microbial pathway for acetate assimilation. Science 331, 294–295.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gross, R.A., Kalra, B., 2002. Biodegradable polymers for the environment. Science 297, 803–807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gerstein, M., Lan, N., Jansen, R., 2002. Proteomics. Integrating interactomes. Science 295, 284–287.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chugunov, A.O., Volynsky, P.E., Krylov, N.A., Boldyrev, I.A., Efremov, R.G., 2014. Liquid but durable: molecular dynamics simulations explain the unique properties of archaeal-like membranes. Sci. Rep. 4, 7462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Focardi, S.M., Fabozzi, F.J., Bali, T.G., 2013. Mathematical Methods for Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ruggeri, S. (Ed.), 2013. Transnational Inquiries and the Protection of Fundamental Rights in Criminal Proceedings: A Study in Memory of Vittorio Grevi and Giovanni Tranchina. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kono, S., 2009. From the Marketers’ Perspective: The Interactive Media Situation in Japan, in: Gerbarg, D. (Ed.), Television Goes Digital. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 57–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Image Analysis.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. Huge New Study Reveals The Impact Of Spanking On Children [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Information Technology: Near-Term Effort to Automate Paper-Based Immigration Files Needs Planning Improvements (No. GAO-06-375). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gogni de Tolentino, M.G., 2010. Challenges and successes of monolingual Spanish-speaking foster parents (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2017. Fixing What Ain’t Broken. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ensign, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ensign, 2011; Gross and Kalra, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gross and Kalra, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Chugunov et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Image Analysis
AbbreviationMed. Image Anal.
ISSN (print)1361-8415
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles