How to format your references using the Medical Image Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Image Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffman, S., 2004. Save the children. Nature 430, 940–941.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blatt, R., Wineland, D., 2008. Entangled states of trapped atomic ions. Nature 453, 1008–1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osta, M.A., Christophides, G.K., Kafatos, F.C., 2004. Effects of mosquito genes on Plasmodium development. Science 303, 2030–2032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dickson, B., Yashayaev, I., Meincke, J., Turrell, B., Dye, S., Holfort, J., 2002. Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature 416, 832–837.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, D.J., 2005. Cinnolines and Phthalazines: Supplement II, Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds: A Series Of Monographs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Carver, M., Gaydarska, B., Montón-Subías, S. (Eds.), 2015. Field Archaeology from Around the World: Ideas and Approaches, SpringerBriefs in Archaeology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Sabnis, M.K., Shukla, M.K., 2016. Model-Based Approach for Shadow Detection of Static Images, in: Chakrabarti, A., Sharma, N., Balas, V.E. (Eds.), Advances in Computing Applications. Springer, Singapore, pp. 49–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Image Analysis.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. New Stem Cell Treatment Leaves Scientists “Stunned” As Wheelchair-Bound Stroke Patient Walks Again [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Airport Improvement Program: Planned Funding Under Letters of Intent (No. RCED-99-33R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Orbinati, A.G., 2015. Spirituality and learning: An exploration into the understanding of spirituality in adult education (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B., 2017. A Year of New Heights For the Dow, Led by Boeing. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Blatt and Wineland, 2008; Hoffman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blatt and Wineland, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Dickson et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Image Analysis
AbbreviationMed. Image Anal.
ISSN (print)1361-8415
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles