How to format your references using the Medical Image Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Image Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Handyside, A., 2010. Let parents decide. Nature 464, 978–979.
A journal article with 2 authors
Su, C.-Y., Carlson, J.R., 2013. Neuroscience. Circuit logic of avoidance and attraction. Science 340, 1295–1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stenner, M.D., Gauthier, D.J., Neifeld, M.A., 2003. The speed of information in a “fast-light” optical medium. Nature 425, 695–698.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Duke, A.R., Jenkins, M.W., Lu, H., McManus, J.M., Chiel, H.J., Jansen, E.D., 2013. Transient and selective suppression of neural activity with infrared light. Sci. Rep. 3, 2600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouvier, J.-M., Campanella, O.H., 2014. Extrusion Processing Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gülpınar, N., Harrison, P., Rüstem, B. (Eds.), 2011. Performance Models and Risk Management in Communications Systems, Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bart, H., Kaashoek, M.A., Ran, A.C.M., 2010. Factorization of non-proper rational matrix functions, in: Kaashoek, M.A., Ran, A.C.M. (Eds.), A State Space Approach to Canonical Factorization with Applications. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp. 57–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Image Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Volunteer Discovers 70,000-Year-Old-Mammoth In Idaho Reservoir [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Highway Safety: More Robust DOT Oversight of Guardrails and Other Roadside Hardware Could Further Enhance Safety (No. GAO-16-575). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, R.A., 2011. Spectroelectrochemical Sensing and Detection of Zinc in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammerty on a Bismuth Film Electrode (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lehman, S., 2016. The Big Try-On. New York Times F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Handyside, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Handyside, 2010; Su and Carlson, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Su and Carlson, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Duke et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Image Analysis
AbbreviationMed. Image Anal.
ISSN (print)1361-8415
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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