How to format your references using the Medical Image Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Image Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lagunoff, D., 2002. Portraits of science. A Polish, Jewish scientist in 19th-century Prussia. Science 298, 2331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weitzer, S., Martinez, J., 2007. The human RNA kinase hClp1 is active on 3’ transfer RNA exons and short interfering RNAs. Nature 447, 222–226.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bruhn, D., Groebner, N., Kohlstedt, D.L., 2000. An interconnected network of core-forming melts produced by shear deformation. Nature 403, 883–886.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Puthalakath, H., Villunger, A., O’Reilly, L.A., Beaumont, J.G., Coultas, L., Cheney, R.E., Huang, D.C., Strasser, A., 2001. Bmf: a proapoptotic BH3-only protein regulated by interaction with the myosin V actin motor complex, activated by anoikis. Science 293, 1829–1832.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pai MD FACC FRCP Edin, R.G., Varadarajan MD FACC, P., 2014. Echocardiography Board Review. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Koslowski, P. (Ed.), 2005. The Discovery of Historicity in German Idealism and Historism, Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonapace, T., Mikic, M., Trade and Investment Division, ESCAP, 2007. Asia-Pacific Regionalism Quo Vadis? Charting the Territory for New Integration Routes, in: Lombaerde, P. de (Ed.), Multilateralism, Regionalism and Bilateralism in Trade and Investment: 2006 World Report on Regional Integration, United Nations University Series on Regionalism. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 75–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Image Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. The San Andreas Fault Is About To Crack – Here’s What Will Happen When It Does [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1999. Y2K Computing Challenge: Day One Planning and Operations Guide (No. AIMD-10.1.22). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunkley, R.L., 2010. A mentoring program for adolescents in a placement facility: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2016. Famous for Its Past, a Small New Jersey Town Struggles to Define Its Future. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lagunoff, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Lagunoff, 2002; Weitzer and Martinez, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weitzer and Martinez, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Puthalakath et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Image Analysis
AbbreviationMed. Image Anal.
ISSN (print)1361-8415
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Other styles