How to format your references using the Medical Image Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Image Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Merryfield, B., 2005. Ocean science. Ocean mixing in 10 steps. Science 308, 641–642.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackelprang, R., Rubin, E.M., 2008. Paleontology. New tricks with old bones. Science 321, 211–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bhandary, S., Eriksson, O., Sanyal, B., 2013. Defect controlled magnetism in FeP/graphene/Ni(111). Sci. Rep. 3, 3405.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Björklund, M., Taipale, M., Varjosalo, M., Saharinen, J., Lahdenperä, J., Taipale, J., 2006. Identification of pathways regulating cell size and cell-cycle progression by RNAi. Nature 439, 1009–1013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schlechty, P.C., 2009. Leading for Learning. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA.
An edited book
Porcu, E., Montero, J., Schlather, M. (Eds.), 2012. Advances and Challenges in Space-time Modelling of Natural Events, Lecture Notes in Statistics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lindley, J.D., Koshal, R.K., 2015. Distribution Channels and Energy Crisis: A Historical Perspective, in: Rogers, J.C., III, Lamb, C.W., Jr. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1983 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 17–21.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Image Analysis.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. These Bizarre Creatures Defy What We Think We Know About Plants And Animals [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Transportation Security: TSA Has Developed a Risk-Based Covert Testing Program, but Could Better Mitigate Aviation Security Vulnerabilities Identified Through Covert Tests (No. GAO-08-958). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diorio, C.A., 2010. The silent scream of Medusa: Restoring, or re-storying, her voice (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2010. Always on Offer: Fresh Fish, a Relaxed Vibe. New York Times NJ5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Merryfield, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Mackelprang and Rubin, 2008; Merryfield, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mackelprang and Rubin, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Björklund et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Image Analysis
AbbreviationMed. Image Anal.
ISSN (print)1361-8415
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Health Informatics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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