How to format your references using the Medical Gas Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Gas Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shetty P. The numbers game. Nature. 2012;484:S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rowland JM, Emlen DJ. Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles. Science. 2009;323:773–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xuereb A, Ulbricht H, Paternostro M. Optomechanical interface for probing matter-wave coherence. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3378.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Hu K, Carroll J, Fedorovich S, Rickman C, Sukhodub A, Davletov B. Vesicular restriction of synaptobrevin suggests a role for calcium in membrane fusion. Nature. 2002;415:646–50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Santamarina JC, Fratta D. Discrete Signals and Inverse Problems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
1. Terris DJ, Singer MC, editors. Minimally Invasive and Robotic Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zanuttigh P, Marin G, Dal Mutto C, Dominio F, Minto L, Cortelazzo GM. Data Fusion from Depth and Standard Cameras. In: Marin G, Dal Mutto C, Dominio F, Minto L, Cortelazzo GM, editors. Time-of-Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras: Technology and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 161–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Gas Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Possible New Alzheimer’s Drug Target Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Comments on Bill To Amend NASA Act of 1958. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1966 May. Report No.: B-141387.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rus EL. A grant proposal for program “Tech Connect”: Bridging the generations through technology coaching [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Surico J. Officer’s Question Led to Fatal Shots, Prosecutor Says at Opening of Trial. New York Times. 2017 Oct 20;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Gas Research
AbbreviationMed. Gas Res.
ISSN (online)2045-9912

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