How to format your references using the ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raffaele Ferrari. 2011. Ocean science. A frontal challenge for climate models. Science 332, 6027 (April 2011), 316–317.
A journal article with 2 authors
Charalampos G. Spilianakis and Richard A. Flavell. 2006. Molecular biology. Managing associations between different chromosomes. Science 312, 5771 (April 2006), 207–208.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tiziano Squartini, Iman van Lelyveld, and Diego Garlaschelli. 2013. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks. Sci. Rep. 3, (November 2013), 3357.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Georgia G. Gregoriou, Stephen J. Gotts, Huihui Zhou, and Robert Desimone. 2009. High-frequency, long-range coupling between prefrontal and visual cortex during attention. Science 324, 5931 (May 2009), 1207–1210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sihem Tebbani, Filipa Lopes, Rayen Filali, Didier Dumur, and Dominique Pareau. 2014. CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Alfio Quarteroni. 2006. Introduzione al Calcolo Scientifico: Esercizi e problemi risolti con MATLAB (3a edizione ed.). Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Jennifer W. Harris, Tianyan Gao, and B. Mark Evers. 2015. The Role of PI3K Signaling Pathway in Intestinal Tumorigenesis. In Intestinal Tumorigenesis: Mechanisms of Development & Progression, Vincent W. Yang and Agnieszka B. Bialkowska (eds.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, 101–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems.

Blog post
Elise Andrew. 2014. “Bonding Hormone” Oxytocin Makes Dogs More Social. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Benchmarking: Costly and Difficult, but Often Necessary When Buying Computer Equipment or Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maureen Mcarthur Hart. 2013. R&D Characteristics and Organizational Structure: Case Studies of University-Industry Research Centers. George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Caitlin Kelly. 2009. Boat Loss Hampers Upkeep at Castle. New York Times, WE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [4,6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
AbbreviationACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst.
ISSN (print)1539-9087
ISSN (online)1558-3465
ScopeHardware and Architecture

Other styles