How to format your references using the Frontiers in Molecular Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Molecular Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gingras, M. J. P. (2009). Physics. Observing monopoles in a magnetic analog of ice. Science 326, 375–376.
A journal article with 2 authors
DeVore, N. M., and Scott, E. E. (2012). Structures of cytochrome P450 17A1 with prostate cancer drugs abiraterone and TOK-001. Nature 482, 116–119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Z., Chakrabarty, D., and Kaplan, D. L. (2006). A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star. Nature 440, 772–775.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pennekamp, F., Pontarp, M., Tabi, A., Altermatt, F., Alther, R., Choffat, Y., et al. (2018). Biodiversity increases and decreases ecosystem stability. Nature 563, 109–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golding, P. (2005). Next Generation Wireless Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bagińska, E. ed. (2016). Damages for Violations of Human Rights: A Comparative Study of Domestic Legal Systems. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Migon, M. P. (2006). “Connection of Microcosm with Macrocosm in Max Scheler’s Philosophy: Man, Logos and Ethos,” in Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology on the Perennial Issue of Microcosm and Macrocosm, ed. A.-T. Tymieniecka (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 67–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Molecular Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Tesla Batteries: Just The Beginning Of How Technology Will Transform The Electric Grid. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Automated Information Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goodison, S. E. (2014). The undiscovered country: Homicide, dynamic change, and deterrence in Washington, D.C. Neighborhoods, 1998-2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2012). Austin Auteur Tries Traditional but Stays Eccentric. New York Times, A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gingras, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (DeVore and Scott, 2012; Gingras, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (DeVore and Scott, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Pennekamp et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Molecular Psychiatry
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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