How to format your references using the Medical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Cairns BR. The logic of chromatin architecture and remodelling at promoters. Nature. 2009 Sep 10;461(7261):193–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hekimi S, Guarente L. Genetics and the specificity of the aging process. Science. 2003 Feb 28;299(5611):1351–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Fox CG, Chadwick WW Jr, Embley RW. Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow. Nature. 2001 Aug 16;412(6848):727–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ashida H, Saito Y, Kojima C, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Yokota A. A functional link between RuBisCO-like protein of Bacillus and photosynthetic RuBisCO. Science. 2003 Oct 10;302(5643):286–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bell S. Lean Enterprise Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Long M, editor. World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering May 26-31, 2012, Beijing, China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. XL, 2345 p. 1038 illus. (IFMBE Proceedings; vol. 39).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Laposata EA. Restraint Stress. In: Ross DL, Chan TC, editors. Sudden Deaths in Custody. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006. p. 59–80. (Forensic Science and Medicine).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Care.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Drug-Resistant Malaria Parasite From Southeast Asia Infects African Mosquitoes Too. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Factors Affecting Involvement in Vehicle Crashes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Oct. Report No.: PEMD-95-3.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Tu KN. Novel bivalent organophosphates as inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase — Compounds with potential for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and studies in the development of asymmetric catalytic Kabachnik-Fields reaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly K. New Concern That Politeness Is a Lost Art in the Office. New York Times. 2004 Jan 18;101.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Care
AbbreviationMed. Care
ISSN (print)0025-7079
ISSN (online)1537-1948
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles