How to format your references using the Medical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Malin G. Oceans. New pieces for the marine sulfur cycle jigsaw. Science. 2006 Oct 27;314(5799):607–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Bradbury A, Plückthun A. Reproducibility: Standardize antibodies used in research. Nature. 2015 Feb 5;518(7537):27–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Venditti C, Meade A, Pagel M. Phylogenies reveal new interpretation of speciation and the Red Queen. Nature. 2010 Jan 21;463(7279):349–52.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Ma A, Xu J, Zhang X, Zhang B, Wang D, Xu H. Interfacial nanodroplets guided construction of hierarchical Au, Au-Pt, and Au-Pd particles as excellent catalysts. Sci Rep. 2014 May 6;4:4849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Petrucelli JR. Detecting Fraud in Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1.
Scholich D, editor. Territorial Cohesion. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. IX, 173 p. (German Annual of Spatial Research and Policy).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zou B, Zhou G, Zhu Q. Negation and Speculation Target Identification. In: Zong C, Nie J-Y, Zhao D, Feng Y, editors. Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Third CCF Conference, NLPCC 2014, Shenzhen, China, December 5-9, 2014 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 34–45. (Communications in Computer and Information Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Care.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Do You Hear What I Hear? Amazing Auditory Illusions Explained. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Progress and Problems in Achieving Objectives of School Lunch Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Jun. Report No.: B-178564.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Solano Cahuana IL. The Production of Apologies by Colombian Learners of English A Study of Pragmatic Acquisition in an EFL Context [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Chira S. The Myth of Female Solidarity. New York Times. 2016 Nov 12;SR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Care
AbbreviationMed. Care
ISSN (print)0025-7079
ISSN (online)1537-1948
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles