How to format your references using the Medical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Dickson D. Anil Agarwal (1947-2002). Nature. 2002 Jan 24;415(6870):384.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
McCarl BA, Schneider UA. Climate change. Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry. Science. 2001 Dec 21;294(5551):2481–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Barnett TP, Adam JC, Lettenmaier DP. Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions. Nature. 2005 Nov 17;438(7066):303–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Dortmans JCFM, Dekkers J, Wickramasinghe INA, Verheije MH, Rottier PJM, van Kuppeveld FJM, et al. Adaptation of novel H7N9 influenza A virus to human receptors. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 28;3:3058.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Janke SJ, Tinsley FC. Introduction to Linear Models and Statistical Inference. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Vazquez R. Control of Turbulent and Magnetohydrodynamic Channel Flows: Boundary Stabilization and State Estimation. Krstic M, editor. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2008. X, 212 p. (Systems&Control: Foundations&Applications).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Ono T. Design of a Sampled-data Control System. In: Zakian V, editor. Control Systems Design: A New Framework. London: Springer; 2005. p. 165–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Care.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R. Scientists Are Going To March On Washington. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Library of Congress: Strong Leadership Needed to Address Serious Information Technology Management Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Mar. Report No.: GAO-15-315.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Vallaster JR. Recognizing and Supporting the Forgotten Poverty Frontier: Exploring Suburban School Poverty in Elementary Schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Williams J. Reading by Numbers. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Care
AbbreviationMed. Care
ISSN (print)0025-7079
ISSN (online)1537-1948
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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