How to format your references using the Medical Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Medical Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown A. Obituary: John Templeton (1912-2008). Nature. 2008 Jul 17;454(7202):290.
A journal article with 2 authors
Horvitz E, Mulligan D. Policy forum. Data, privacy, and the greater good. Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):253–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naundorf B, Wolf F, Volgushev M. Unique features of action potential initiation in cortical neurons. Nature. 2006 Apr 20;440(7087):1060–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xu S, Bai Z, Jin B, Xiao R, Zhuang G. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants. Sci Rep. 2014 Feb 28;4:4131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benslama M, Boucenna ML, Batatia H. Ad Hoc Networks Telecommunications and Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Kool VK. Psychology of Technology. Agrawal R, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXIV, 384 p. 30 illus., 24 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Harsoula M, Contopoulos G, Kalapotharakos C. Orbital Structure in Barred Galaxies and the Role of Chaos. In: Contopoulos G, Patsis PA, editors. Chaos in Astronomy: Conference 2007. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 53–61. (Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Medical Care.

Blog post
Andrew D. Feeling Anxious About That First Date? Here’s How Science Can Help. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2011.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Systems: Better Control Over States’ Medicaid Systems Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-89-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnett J. Understanding gender differences in teachers’ level of insight as it relates to ADHD [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir SM. Fire’s Death Toll: ‘5 Amazing People Full of Life,’ the Oldest of Them 20. New York Times. 2017 Apr 24;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleMedical Care
AbbreviationMed. Care
ISSN (print)0025-7079
ISSN (online)1537-1948
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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