How to format your references using the European Journal of Protistology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Protistology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ciufolini, I., 2007. Dragging of inertial frames. Nature 449, 41–47.
A journal article with 2 authors
Buschman, T.J., Miller, E.K., 2007. Top-down versus bottom-up control of attention in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Science 315, 1860–1862.
A journal article with 3 authors
Church, G.M., Gao, Y., Kosuri, S., 2012. Next-generation digital information storage in DNA. Science 337, 1628.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sohal, V.S., Zhang, F., Yizhar, O., Deisseroth, K., 2009. Parvalbumin neurons and gamma rhythms enhance cortical circuit performance. Nature 459, 698–702.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arteaga, R., Hyland, J., 2013. Pivot. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kunkel, J.M., Ludwig, T. (Eds.), 2015. High Performance Computing: 30th International Conference, ISC High Performance 2015, Frankfurt, Germany, July 12-16, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Ballmer, G., 2015. Pursued by Adrenalin, in Pursuit of Dopamine, in: Dyer, L.A., Forister, M.L. (Eds.), The Lives of Lepidopterists. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 41–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Protistology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. First new river dolphin species found since World War I [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Aviation Security: Private Screening Contractors Have Little Flexibility to Implement Innovative Approaches (No. GAO-04-505T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung, J., 2015. Quasi-one-dimensional modeling of an adiabatic-compression preheated Ludwieg tube (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2016. The Art Speaks, and the Poetry Paints a Picture. New York Times CT10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ciufolini, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Buschman and Miller, 2007; Ciufolini, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Buschman and Miller, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Sohal et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Protistology
AbbreviationEur. J. Protistol.
ISSN (print)0932-4739

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