How to format your references using the European Journal of Protistology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Protistology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lissauer, J.J., 2006. Astronomy. Growing apart in lock step. Science 313, 1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gluckman, P.D., Hanson, M.A., 2004. Living with the past: evolution, development, and patterns of disease. Science 305, 1733–1736.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng, N., Bu, X., Feng, P., 2003. Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature 426, 428–432.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lei, Z., Liu, X., Wu, Yuan, Wang, Hui, Jiang, S., Wang, S., Hui, X., Wu, Yidong, Gault, B., Kontis, P., Raabe, D., Gu, L., Zhang, Q., Chen, H., Wang, Hongtao, Liu, J., An, K., Zeng, Q., Nieh, T.-G., Lu, Z., 2018. Enhanced strength and ductility in a high-entropy alloy via ordered oxygen complexes. Nature 563, 546–550.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leibowitz, M.L., Bova, A., Hammond, P.B., 2010. The Endowment Model of Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kandouz, M. (Ed.), 2015. Intercellular Communication in Cancer, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Yanagidate, F., Strichartz, G.R., 2006. Local Anesthetics, in: Stein, C. (Ed.), Analgesia, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 95–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Protistology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. How Does The Immune System Learn? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. National Airspace System: Better Cost Data Could Improve FAA’s Management of the Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System (No. GAO-03-343). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chun, A.R., 2017. Physiological, Ultrastructure, and Preliminary Genomic Characterization of the Marine Protist Thraustochytrium sp. LLF1b (class Labyrinthulomycetes) (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Troy, T., 2017. How Conservatives Can Find Their Way. New York Times SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lissauer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gluckman and Hanson, 2004; Lissauer, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gluckman and Hanson, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lei et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Protistology
AbbreviationEur. J. Protistol.
ISSN (print)0932-4739

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