How to format your references using the European Journal of Protistology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Protistology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leder, P., 2010. Retrospective. Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927-2010). Science 327, 972.
A journal article with 2 authors
Emerson, B.C., Kolm, N., 2005. Species diversity can drive speciation. Nature 434, 1015–1017.
A journal article with 3 authors
Korkhov, V.M., Mireku, S.A., Locher, K.P., 2012. Structure of AMP-PNP-bound vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD-F. Nature 490, 367–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bignell, G.R., Greenman, C.D., Davies, H., Butler, A.P., Edkins, S., Andrews, J.M., Buck, G., Chen, L., Beare, D., Latimer, C., Widaa, S., Hinton, J., Fahey, C., Fu, B., Swamy, S., Dalgliesh, G.L., Teh, B.T., Deloukas, P., Yang, F., Campbell, P.J., Futreal, P.A., Stratton, M.R., 2010. Signatures of mutation and selection in the cancer genome. Nature 463, 893–898.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Praetorius, S., Schößer, B., 2016. Bentonithandbuch. Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn, Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany.
An edited book
Saad, A.P.B., 2016. Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Meredith, P.J., 2016. Attachment Theory and Pain, in: Hunter, J., Maunder, R. (Eds.), Improving Patient Treatment with Attachment Theory: A Guide for Primary Care Practitioners and Specialists. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Protistology.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Lost In Translation: Five Common English Phrases You May Be Using Incorrectly [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Aviation Security: Preliminary Observations on TSA’s Progress to Allow Airports to Use Private Passenger and Baggage Screening Services (No. GAO-05-126). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, J.-M.C., 2008. The effect of class size on a teacher’s job satisfaction in a southeastern urban LEA (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013. A Scandal Leaves Its Mark. New York Times D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leder, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Emerson and Kolm, 2005; Leder, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Emerson and Kolm, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Bignell et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Protistology
AbbreviationEur. J. Protistol.
ISSN (print)0932-4739

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