How to format your references using the European Journal of Protistology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Protistology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schadt, E.E., 2009. Molecular networks as sensors and drivers of common human diseases. Nature 461, 218–223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tsuchiya, T., Eulgem, T., 2013. Mutations in EDM2 selectively affect silencing states of transposons and induce plant developmental plasticity. Sci. Rep. 3, 1701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, X., Jin, L., Zhou, Z.H., 2008. 3.88 A structure of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by cryo-electron microscopy. Nature 453, 415–419.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hopkins, W.D., Keebaugh, A.C., Reamer, L.A., Schaeffer, J., Schapiro, S.J., Young, L.J., 2014. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Sci. Rep. 4, 3774.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Negre, E., 2015. Information and Recommender Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Meyer, A.L., Gullotta, T.P. (Eds.), 2012. Physical Activity Across the Lifespan: Prevention and Treatment for Health and Well-Being, Issues in Children’s and Families’ Lives. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Krauthamer, A.V., Partovi, S., Lyo, J., 2013. Neoplastic Disease of the Spine, in: Karimi, S. (Ed.), Atlas of Brain and Spine Oncology Imaging. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 141–231.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Protistology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Study Suggests Babies Only Remember Good Times [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Issues Concerning the Future Operation of the Space Transportation System (No. MASAD-83-6). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wenger, M.C., 2011. Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2013. Pork Belly, Yes; Popovers, No. New York Times LI9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schadt, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Schadt, 2009; Tsuchiya and Eulgem, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tsuchiya and Eulgem, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hopkins et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Protistology
AbbreviationEur. J. Protistol.
ISSN (print)0932-4739

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