How to format your references using the European Journal of Protistology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Protistology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, G.H., 2015. Evolution: An avian explosion. Nature 526, 516–517.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schuske, K., Jorgensen, E.M., 2004. Neuroscience. Vesicular glutamate transporter--shooting blanks. Science 304, 1750–1752.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsubogo, T., Oyamada, H., Kobayashi, S., 2015. Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts. Nature 520, 329–332.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Silveira, J.R., Raymond, G.J., Hughson, A.G., Race, R.E., Sim, V.L., Hayes, S.F., Caughey, B., 2005. The most infectious prion protein particles. Nature 437, 257–261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Münch, V., 2009. Patente, Marken, Design von A bis Z. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Tamir, D.E., Rishe, N.D., Kandel, A. (Eds.), 2015. Fifty Years of Fuzzy Logic and its Applications, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tayaran, E., Schiffauerova, A., 2012. The Role of Internal and External Sources of Knowledge in the Product Lifecycle in Biotechnology Sector, in: Rivest, L., Bouras, A., Louhichi, B. (Eds.), Product Lifecycle Management. Towards Knowledge-Rich Enterprises: IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference, PLM 2012, Montreal, QC, Canada, July 9-11, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 46–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Protistology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. The Strange History and Future of Chlamydia Vaccines [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. U.S. Launch Enterprise: Acquisition Best Practices Can Benefit Future Efforts (No. GAO-14-776T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moretto, L., 2012. Exploring the Nature of the Relationship Between Decision-Driven Scenarios and Decision Confidence in High-Velocity Environments (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. African-American Tennis, Fostered for 100 Years. New York Times SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Schuske and Jorgensen, 2004; Thomas, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schuske and Jorgensen, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Silveira et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Protistology
AbbreviationEur. J. Protistol.
ISSN (print)0932-4739

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