How to format your references using the Matter and Radiation at Extremes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Matter and Radiation at Extremes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Hapgood, Astrophysics: Prepare for the coming space weather storm, Nature. 484 (2012) 311–313.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Manukyan, P.B. Singh, Epigenome rejuvenation: HP1β mobility as a measure of pluripotent and senescent chromatin ground states, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4789.
A journal article with 3 authors
N. Xu, C.-L. Tsai, J.T. Lee, Transient homologous chromosome pairing marks the onset of X inactivation, Science. 311 (2006) 1149–1152.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Myong, M.M. Bruno, A.M. Pyle, T. Ha, Spring-loaded mechanism of DNA unwinding by hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase, Science. 317 (2007) 513–516.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Demaria, Introduction to Private Equity, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
A. Battler, Stem Cell and Gene-Based Therapy: Frontiers in Regenerative Medicine, Springer, London, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Micarelli, F. Sciarrone, M. Marinilli, Web Document Modeling, in: P. Brusilovsky, A. Kobsa, W. Nejdl (Eds.), The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 155–192.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Matter and Radiation at Extremes.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Being Obese Could Lower Dementia Risk, But Being Underweight Could Increase Risk, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Implementation of the Technology Transfer Act: A Preliminary Assessment, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.H. Vu, Efficiency of pair-wise and multiple alignment algorithms in computational biology, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. O’connor, All at Sea, New York Times. (2017) BR15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMatter and Radiation at Extremes
ISSN (print)2468-080X

Other styles