How to format your references using the Burns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kahan DM. Social science. A risky science communication environment for vaccines. Science 2013;342:53–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cohen SM, Brennecke J. Developmental biology. Mixed messages in early development. Science 2006;312:65–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morewedge CK, Huh YE, Vosgerau J. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science 2010;330:1530–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jesmer BR, Merkle JA, Goheen JR, Aikens EO, Beck JL, Courtemanch AB, et al. Is ungulate migration culturally transmitted? Evidence of social learning from translocated animals. Science 2018;361:1023–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard M. SolidWorks® Administration Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Goldreich O, editor. Property Testing: Current Research and Surveys. vol. 6390. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Metcalfe G, Olivetti N, Gabbay D. Syntactic Eliminations. In: Olivetti N, Gabbay D, editors. Proof Theory for Fuzzy Logics, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009, p. 101–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns.

Blog post
Taub B. Just Like Humans, Elderly Monkeys Have Fewer Friends. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Enhanced the Controller-in-Charge Program, but More Comprehensive Evaluation is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckenridge C. Measuring Object and Attribute Salience in 2014 Illinois Gubernatorial Endorsements. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes B, Buckley C. ‘La La Land’ Dominates With Record Wins. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns
ISSN (print)0305-4179
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles