How to format your references using the Burns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mann RS. Neuroscience. The Michael Jackson fly. Science 2014;344:48–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Accardi A, Miller C. Secondary active transport mediated by a prokaryotic homologue of ClC Cl- channels. Nature 2004;427:803–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bidle KD, Manganelli M, Azam F. Regulation of oceanic silicon and carbon preservation by temperature control on bacteria. Science 2002;298:1980–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Woo PCY, Lam C-W, Tam EWT, Lee K-C, Yung KKY, Leung CKF, et al. The biosynthetic pathway for a thousand-year-old natural food colorant and citrinin in Penicillium marneffei. Sci Rep 2014;4:6728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Box GEP, Luceño A, Paniagua-Quiñones MDC. Statistical Control by Monitoring and Adjustment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Matoušek V, Mautner P, editors. Text, Speech and Dialogue: 10th International Conference, TSD 2007, Pilsen, Czech Republic, September 3-7, 2007. Proceedings. vol. 4629. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Beauville A. Sur les hypersurfaces dont les sections hyperplanes sont à module constant. In: Cartier P, Illusie L, Katz NM, Laumon G, Manin YI, Ribet KA, editors. The Grothendieck Festschrift: A Collection of Articles Written in Honor of the 60th Birthday of Alexander Grothendieck, Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2007, p. 121–33.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns.

Blog post
Taub B. Brain-Eating Amoeba Is Hungry For Your Neurotransmitters. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Observations on FAA’s Modernization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lancaster G. Understanding interdisciplinary communication and collaboration among physicians, nurses, and unlicensed assistive personnel. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hirsch GA. The Humanity of the Long-Distance Runner. New York Times 2011:SP10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns
ISSN (print)0305-4179
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles