How to format your references using the Burns citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Burns. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chicurel M. Bioinformatics: bringing it all together. Nature 2002;419:751, 753, 755 passim.
A journal article with 2 authors
Szalay A, Gray J. The world-wide telescope. Science 2001;293:2037–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weiss KM, Miguel-Sanchez J, Elzerman JM. Magnetically tunable singlet-triplet spin qubit in a four-electron InGaAs coupled quantum dot. Sci Rep 2013;3:3121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liang L, Juarez S, Nga TVT, Dunstan S, Nakajima-Sasaki R, Davies DH, et al. Immune profiling with a Salmonella Typhi antigen microarray identifies new diagnostic biomarkers of human typhoid. Sci Rep 2013;3:1043.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rezzoug A, El-Hadi Zaïm M. Non-conventional Electrical Machines. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Bulte JWM, Modo MMJ, editors. Nanoparticles in Biomedical Imaging: Emerging Technologies and Applications. vol. 102. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Basso D, Pesarin F, Salmaso L, Solari A. Multivariate Continuous Data. In: Salmaso L, Pesarin F, Basso D, editors. Permutation Tests for Stochastic Ordering and ANOVA: Theory and Applications with R, New York, NY: Springer; 2009, p. 85–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Burns.

Blog post
Andrew E. No, Smelling Farts Can’t Cure Cancer. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area Plan: Fiscal Years 1998-2000--1999 Update. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelayo AY. A program to increase health literacy for older Latino adults residing in La Habra, California: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Gathering in the Boss’s Office, This Time to Honor Him. New York Times 2010:B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBurns
ISSN (print)0305-4179
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Emergency Medicine

Other styles