How to format your references using the Mathematical Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. (2006) Market watch. Nature, 444, 805.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ryan, R.J.H. & Bernstein, B.E. (2012) Molecular biology. Genetic events that shape the cancer epigenome. Science, 336, 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
Våge, S., Storesund, J.E., & Thingstad, T.F. (2013) SAR11 viruses and defensive host strains. Nature, 499, E3-4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, D.D.D., Lee, C.S., Au, F.C.K., Tong, S.Y., & Lee, S.T. (2003) Small-diameter silicon nanowire surfaces. Science, 299, 1874–1877.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, I.M., Griffiths, D.V., & Margetts, L. (2015) Programming the Finite Element Method. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vivanco, J.M. & Weir, T. (2011) Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach, vol. 8, First ed. , Signaling and Communication in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cherkassky, V. & Ma, Y. (2006) Data Complexity, Margin-Based Learning, and Popper’s Philosophy of Inductive Learning. Data Complexity in Pattern Recognition, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing (Basu, M. & Ho, T.K. eds). London: Springer, pp. 91–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017) Check Out This Cool Footage Of Dust Devils Tearing Across Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Space Station: Status of Russian Involvement and Cost Control Efforts ( No. T-NSIAD-99-117). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denz, T.A. (2012) Performance Evaluation of a Magnetically Enhanced Micro-Cathode Vacuum Arc Thruster (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L. (2006) Drama Students Face A Change of Scene. New York Times, 14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2006; Ryan & Bernstein, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ryan & Bernstein, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationMath. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1477-8599
ISSN (online)1477-8602
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Environmental Science
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
General Medicine
General Neuroscience

Other styles