How to format your references using the Mathematical Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang, X. (2014) Plant science. Delayed gratification--waiting to terminate stem cell identity. Science, 343, 498–499.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shidara, M. & Richmond, B.J. (2002) Anterior cingulate: single neuronal signals related to degree of reward expectancy. Science, 296, 1709–1711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walker, J.R., Corpina, R.A., & Goldberg, J. (2001) Structure of the Ku heterodimer bound to DNA and its implications for double-strand break repair. Nature, 412, 607–614.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Choe, K.-M., Werner, T., Stöven, S., Hultmark, D., & Anderson, K.V. (2002) Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila. Science, 296, 359–362.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simon, P., Brousse, T., & Favier, F. (2017) Supercapacitors Based on Carbon or Pseudocapacitive Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kielian, T. (2009) Toll-like Receptors: Roles in Infection and Neuropathology, vol. 336. , Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Töppe, E., Oswald, M.R., Cremers, D., & Rother, C. (2011) Image-Based 3D Modeling via Cheeger Sets. Computer Vision – ACCV 2010: 10th Asian Conference on Computer Vision, Queenstown, New Zealand, November 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Kimmel, R., Klette, R., & Sugimoto, A. eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015) Compound In Red Wine Might Help Alzheimer’s Patients. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1982) NASA Must Reconsider Operations Pricing Policy To Compensate for Cost Growth on the Space Transportation System ( No. MASAD-82-15). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chen, G. (2005) Essays On Using Weather Derivatives In Dairy Production (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017) Bomber Hits Courthouse in Damascus. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhang, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Shidara & Richmond, 2002; Zhang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shidara & Richmond, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Choe et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationMath. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1477-8599
ISSN (online)1477-8602
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Environmental Science
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
General Medicine
General Neuroscience

Other styles