How to format your references using the Mathematical Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kideys, A.E. (2002) Ecology. Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem. Science, 297, 1482–1484.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw, R.J. & Cantley, L.C. (2012) Cell biology. Ancient sensor for ancient drug. Science, 336, 813–814.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jakobsen, L., Ratcliffe, J.M., & Surlykke, A. (2013) Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats. Nature, 493, 93–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, Y., Liu, Y., Lan, L., Wu, T., Jiang, W., Ong, C.K., & He, S. (2013) First experimental demonstration of an isotropic electromagnetic cloak with strict conformal mapping. Sci. Rep., 3, 2182.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klugman, S.A., Panjer, H.H., & Willmot, G.E. (2013) Loss Models: Further Topics. , Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Arnull, E. & Fox, D. (2016) Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Ulivieri, C., Laneve, G., & Ortore, E. (2010) The “Ulingo” Mid-Low Latitudes Observation (MILO) Mission. Small Satellite Missions for Earth Observation: New Developments and Trends (Sandau, R., Roeser, H.-P., & Valenzuela, A. eds). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 67–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015) Astronomers Observe Traces Of A Galactic Dance. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Examples of Job Hopping by Commercial Drivers After Failing Drug Tests ( No. GAO-08-829R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaff, S. (2013) What characterizes and impacts student transformational learning in a community college work placement context (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Anderson, J. (2017) Pinning Award Hopes on a Powerful Song. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kideys, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kideys, 2002; Shaw & Cantley, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaw & Cantley, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Ma et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationMath. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1477-8599
ISSN (online)1477-8602
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Environmental Science
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
General Medicine
General Neuroscience

Other styles