How to format your references using the Mathematical Medicine and Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mathematical Medicine and Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Patek, S.N. (2014) Materials science. Biomimetics and evolution. Science, 345, 1448–1449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meyer, G. & Brose, N. (2003) Neuroscience. SPARring with spines. Science, 302, 1341–1344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Olveczky, B.P., Baccus, S.A., & Meister, M. (2003) Segregation of object and background motion in the retina. Nature, 423, 401–408.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Halik, M., Klauk, H., Zschieschang, U., Schmid, G., Dehm, C., Schütz, M., Maisch, S., Effenberger, F., Brunnbauer, M., & Stellacci, F. (2004) Low-voltage organic transistors with an amorphous molecular gate dielectric. Nature, 431, 963–966.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burrows, G.E. & Tyrl, R.J. (2012) Toxic Plants of North America. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Perneczky, A. (2008) Keyhole Approaches in Neurosurgery: Volume I Concept and surgical technique. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez, V., Miller, M.H., & Tyson, W. (2014) Analyzing STEM Faculty Demographics and Faculty Climate Survey. Alliances for Advancing Academic Women: Guidelines for Collaborating in STEM Fields (Gilmer, P.J., Tansel, B., & Miller, M.H. eds). Rotterdam: SensePublishers, pp. 79–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mathematical Medicine and Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013) Mid-Sized Planetary Body in Kuiper Belt Could Float In Water. IFLScience. URL


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Program Administration at the Atterbury Job Corps Center in Indiana ( No. B-130515). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez, M. (2015) Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2007) Cross-Cultural Confections. New York Times, NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Patek, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer & Brose, 2003; Patek, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meyer & Brose, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Halik et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMathematical Medicine and Biology
AbbreviationMath. Med. Biol.
ISSN (print)1477-8599
ISSN (online)1477-8602
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Environmental Science
General Immunology and Microbiology
Applied Mathematics
Modelling and Simulation
General Medicine
General Neuroscience

Other styles