How to format your references using the Materials Today Sustainability citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Today Sustainability. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Wilczek, Journal club. A theoretical physicist examines exotic particles lurking in new materials, Nature. 458 (2009) 129.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.B. Singleton, B.J. Traynor, Genetics. For complex disease genetics, collaboration drives progress, Science. 347 (2015) 1422–1423.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Grieco, A.J. van Noordwijk, M.E. Visser, Evidence for the effect of learning on timing of reproduction in blue tits, Science. 296 (2002) 136–138.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Schmid, J.S. Dordick, B. Hauer, A. Kiener, M. Wubbolts, B. Witholt, Industrial biocatalysis today and tomorrow, Nature. 409 (2001) 258–268.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.R. Chernick, The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Korthals, ed., Genomics, Obesity and the Struggle over Responsibilities, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Lipani, F. Piroi, L. Andersson, A. Hanbury, An Information Retrieval Ontology for Information Retrieval Nanopublications, in: E. Kanoulas, M. Lupu, P. Clough, M. Sanderson, M. Hall, A. Hanbury, E. Toms (Eds.), Information Access Evaluation. Multilinguality, Multimodality, and Interaction: 5th International Conference of the CLEF Initiative, CLEF 2014, Sheffield, UK, September 15-18, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 44–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Today Sustainability.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Last Of Her Kind, This 100-Year-Old Turtle May Soon Be A Mom, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Airports’ Efforts to Deal with Date Change Problem, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Mark, A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Personal Finances; Perot Reneged on Pledge to Reagan, New York Times. (1992) 122.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Today Sustainability
ISSN (print)2589-2347

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