How to format your references using the Materials Discovery Today citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Discovery Today. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.B. Plotkin, Cell biology. The lives of proteins, Science. 331 (2011) 683–684.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.S. Ostfeld, F. Keesing, Ecology. Oh the locusts sang, then they dropped dead, Science. 306 (2004) 1488–1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Jablonski, K. Roy, J.W. Valentine, Out of the tropics: evolutionary dynamics of the latitudinal diversity gradient, Science. 314 (2006) 102–106.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.A. Pomeranz Krummel, C. Oubridge, A.K.W. Leung, J. Li, K. Nagai, Crystal structure of human spliceosomal U1 snRNP at 5.5 A resolution, Nature. 458 (2009) 475–480.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.J. Preber, Financial Expert Witness Communication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
T.R. Fitzpatrick, ed., Treating Vulnerable Populations of Cancer Survivors: A Biopsychosocial Approach, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Yang, M. Pei, Y. Wu, B. Ma, Y. Jia, Online-Learning Structural Appearance Model for Robust Visual Tracking, in: C. Sun, F. Fang, Z.-H. Zhou, W. Yang, Z.-Y. Liu (Eds.), Intelligence Science and Big Data Engineering: 4th International Conference, IScIDE 2013, Beijing, China, July 31 – August 2, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 30–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Discovery Today.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How Oil Spills From Wartime Sea Battles Nearly Wiped Out Famous Welsh Guillemots, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Aviation Administration: Stronger Architecture Program Needed to Guide Systems Modernization Efforts, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.J. Child, The evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and related AUX/IAA genes in angiosperms, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, S. Sengupta, U.N. Reaches Deal to Oversee Aleppo Evacuations Amid New Obstacles, New York Times. (2016) A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Discovery Today
ISSN (print)2352-9245

Other styles