How to format your references using the Materials Characterization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materials Characterization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
R. Lee, The outlook for population growth, Science. 333 (2011) 569–573.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
V. Vlaminck, M. Bailleul, Current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, Science. 322 (2008) 410–413.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
C.H. Johnson, M. Egli, P.L. Stewart, Structural insights into a circadian oscillator, Science. 322 (2008) 697–701.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
[1]
T. Klein, I. Joumard, S. Blanchard, J. Marcus, R. Cubitt, T. Giamarchi, P. Le Doussal, A Bragg glass phase in the vortex lattice of a type II superconductor, Nature. 413 (2001) 404–406.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
P. Massotte, P. Corsi, Smart Decisions in Complex Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
[1]
O. Pichardo Lagunas, O. Herrera Alcántara, G. Arroyo Figueroa, eds., Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Its Applications: 14th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2015, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, October 25-31, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
T. Marian, H. Weatherspoon, K.-S. Lee, A. Sagar, Fmeter: Extracting Indexable Low-Level System Signatures by Counting Kernel Function Calls, in: P. Narasimhan, P. Triantafillou (Eds.), Middleware 2012: ACM/IFIP/USENIX 13th International Middleware Conference, Montreal, QC, Canada, December 3-7, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 81–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materials Characterization.

Blog post
[1]
R. Andrews, Department Of Education Tweets Spelling Mistake Then Misspells Apology, IFLScience. (2017). https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/department-education-tweets-spelling-mistake-misspells-apology/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office, Data on the Office of Education’s Use of Funds for Conferences, Seminars, and Training Sessions, and Consultants, Experts, and Consulting Organizations in Lieu of Federal Employees, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
R.M. Spidell, Reexamining Richard Strauss’s Second Horn Concerto as a Significant Contribution to Twentieth-Century Music, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
M. Kelly, Clinton Campaign Avoided Workers’ Taxes, New York Times. (1993) 127.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterials Characterization
AbbreviationMater. Charact.
ISSN (print)1044-5803
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles