How to format your references using the Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.V. Rockman, Reverse engineering the genotype-phenotype map with natural genetic variation, Nature. 456 (2008) 738–744.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y.-G. Sun, Z.-F. Chen, A gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mediates the itch sensation in the spinal cord, Nature. 448 (2007) 700–703.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Riehl, M. Zeidi, N.J. Conard, Emergence of agriculture in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran, Science. 341 (2013) 65–67.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.-H. Shin, I. Grinberg, I.-W. Chen, A.M. Rappe, Nucleation and growth mechanism of ferroelectric domain-wall motion, Nature. 449 (2007) 881–884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.D. DiGrado, G.A. Thorp, The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
V.V. Das, J. Stephen, Y. Chaba, eds., Computer Networks and Information Technologies: Second International Conference on Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing, CNC 2011, Bangalore, India, March 10-11, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Ahlert, B. Schefer, The Risks of Admissible Price-Maintenance Systems for the Effectiveness of Inter-Brand Competition, in: B. Schefer (Ed.), Vertical Price Coordination and Brand Care: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Prohibition of Resale Price Maintenance, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 33–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Advances in Ophthalmology and Optometry.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Superconducting Shield Could Protect Astronauts From Radiation, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Information Concerning Equipment Outages at Two Kansas City Area Facilities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.J. Gaudet, A General Approach to the Direct Detection of Dark Matter, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, H. Saad, Dozens Killed As Blast Hits Bus Convoy In Syria, New York Times. (2017) A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAdvances in Ophthalmology and Optometry
AbbreviationAdv. Ophthalmol. Optom.
ISSN (print)2452-1760

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