How to format your references using the Materialia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Materialia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Brower, Biomarkers: Portents of malignancy, Nature. 471 (2011) S19-21.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. John, C.A. Hunter, Immunology. Neutrophil soldiers or Trojan Horses?, Science. 321 (2008) 917–918.
A journal article with 3 authors
V. Domínguez-García, S. Pigolotti, M.A. Muñoz, Inherent directionality explains the lack of feedback loops in empirical networks, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7497.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Yagi, N. Nakagawa, T. Saito, H. Kiyonari, T. Abe, T. Toda, S.-W. Wu, K.-H. Khoo, S. Oka, K. Kato, AGO61-dependent GlcNAc modification primes the formation of functional glycans on α-dystroglycan, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3288.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Cohen, Mind Games, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
A.A. Snarskii, Transport Processes in Macroscopically Disordered Media: From Mean Field Theory to Percolation, Springer, New York, NY, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Biscari, T. Ruggeri, G. Saccomandi, M.S. Vianello, Geometria delle masse, in: T. Ruggeri, G. Saccomandi, M.S. Vianello (Eds.), Meccanica Razionale, Springer, Milano, 2016: pp. 87–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Materialia.

Blog post
T. Hale, Scientists Are Exploring One Of The Deepest, Most Mysterious Parts Of The Ocean In A Submarine Right Now, And You Can Watch Live, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 2, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Rogers, What Qualities Make an Effective Teacher Labor Union Leader?, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Boucher, Between Fable and Fact, New York Times. (2017) BR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMaterialia
ISSN (print)2589-1529

Other styles