How to format your references using the Maritime Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maritime Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Venema, L. 2000. Fathers of electronic revolution are rewarded. Nature 407: 662.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berger, A., and M. F. Loutre. 2002. Climate. An exceptionally long interglacial ahead? Science (New York, N.Y.) 297: 1287–1288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Piscitelli, Chayne L., Harini Krishnamurthy, and Eric Gouaux. 2010. Neurotransmitter/sodium symporter orthologue LeuT has a single high-affinity substrate site. Nature 468: 1129–1132.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Klinakis, Apostolos, Camille Lobry, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Philmo Oh, Hiroshi Haeno, Silvia Buonamici, Inge van De Walle, et al. 2011. A novel tumour-suppressor function for the Notch pathway in myeloid leukaemia. Nature 473: 230–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nappi, Eugenio, and Vladimir Peskov. 2013. Imaging Gaseous Detectors and Their Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Chen, Bo, ed. 2010. Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 6th International Conference, AAIM 2010, Weihai, China, July 19-21, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6124. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Susperregi, Loreto, Basilio Sierra, Jose María Martínez-Otzeta, Elena Lazkano, and Ander Ansuategui. 2012. A Layered Learning Approach to 3D Multimodal People Detection Using Low-Cost Sensors in a Mobile Robot. In Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications: 3rd International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence (ISAmI 2012), ed. Paulo Novais, Kasper Hallenborg, Dante I. Tapia, and Juan M. Corchado Rodríguez, 27–33. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maritime Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. Mind-Reading Computer Writes Words with Brain Waves. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 25.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Superfund: EPA Needs to Better Focus Cleanup Technology Development. T-RCED-92-92. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freeman, Jessica. 2017. The Loudest Room. Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. Strange Weather. New York Times, July 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Venema 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Venema 2000; Berger and Loutre 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berger and Loutre 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Klinakis et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleMaritime Studies
AbbreviationMarit. Stud.
ISSN (online)2212-9790
ScopeAquatic Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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