How to format your references using the Maritime Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maritime Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kato, Takashi. 2002. Self-assembly of phase-segregated liquid crystal structures. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295: 2414–2418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nuttall, Isabelle, and Christopher Dye. 2013. Epidemiology. The SARS wake-up call. Science (New York, N.Y.) 339: 1287–1288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rannou, P., F. Hourdin, and C. P. McKay. 2002. A wind origin for Titan’s haze structure. Nature 418: 853–856.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shrestha, Vivek Raj, Sang-Shin Lee, Eun-Soo Kim, and Duk-Yong Choi. 2014. Non-iridescent transmissive structural color filter featuring highly efficient transmission and high excitation purity. Scientific reports 4: 4921.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Millon, Theodore, and Seth Grossman. 2007. Moderating Severe Personality Disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Metkar, Shilpa. 2013. Motion Estimation Techniques for Digital Video Coding. Edited by Sanjay Talbar. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Acet, Mehmet, M. Spasova, and A. Elsukova. 2012. Diffusion Enhancement in FePt Nanoparticles for L1 $0$ Stability. In Nanoparticles from the Gasphase: Formation, Structure, Properties, ed. Axel Lorke, Markus Winterer, Roland Schmechel, and Christof Schulz, 123–138. NanoScience and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maritime Studies.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2017. Five Bloodcurdling Medical Procedures That Are No Longer Performed… Thankfully. IFLScience. IFLScience. May 19.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Public Transportation: Survey of Project Sponsors on Their Transit Projects and Experience with the Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts and Small Starts Programs (GAO-07-927SP, July 2007), an E-supplement to GAO-07-917. GAO-07-927SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, Sandra. 2014. Keeping families together: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Witt, John Fabian. 2016. Court Provocateur. New York Times, October 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kato 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kato 2002; Nuttall and Dye 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nuttall and Dye 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Shrestha et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMaritime Studies
AbbreviationMarit. Stud.
ISSN (online)2212-9790
ScopeAquatic Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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