How to format your references using the Maritime Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maritime Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lowe, John B. 2005. Cell biology. Does Notch take the sweet road to success? Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 1570–1572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Olszewski, Thomas D., and Douglas H. Erwin. 2004. Dynamic response of Permian brachiopod communities to long-term environmental change. Nature 428: 738–741.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Xuekui, Lei Jin, and Z. Hong Zhou. 2008. 3.88 A structure of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus by cryo-electron microscopy. Nature 453: 415–419.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dixon, Jacqueline Eaby, Loretta Leist, Charles Langmuir, and Jean-Guy Schilling. 2002. Recycled dehydrated lithosphere observed in plume-influenced mid-ocean-ridge basalt. Nature 420: 385–389.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weiss, Alan. 2009. Getting Started in Consulting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Chirila, Dragos B. 2015. Introduction to Modern Fortran for the Earth System Sciences. Edited by Gerrit Lohmann. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario. 2016. The Addiction to Suicidal Behavior. In Understanding Suicide: From Diagnosis to Personalized Treatment, ed. Philippe Courtet, 53–61. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maritime Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Beetle Inspired Material Draws Water From Arid Air. IFLScience. IFLScience. June 17.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. General Government Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. AA-96-28(1). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheaton, Heather Frederick. 2012. The Relationship between Team Captains’ Leadership Styles and Team Performance. Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2005. Death Penalty Case Gives A Clue to Alito’s Methods. New York Times, November 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lowe 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Olszewski and Erwin 2004; Lowe 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Olszewski and Erwin 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Dixon et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMaritime Studies
AbbreviationMarit. Stud.
ISSN (online)2212-9790
ScopeAquatic Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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