How to format your references using the Maritime Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maritime Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batty, Michael. 2008. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 769–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewenstein, Maciej, and Anna Sanpera. 2008. Physics. Probing quantum magnetism with cold atoms. Science (New York, N.Y.) 319: 292–293.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson, F. E., O. A. Anisimov, and N. I. Shiklomanov. 2001. Subsidence risk from thawing permafrost. Nature 410: 889–890.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kato, Y., R. C. Myers, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom. 2004. Coherent spin manipulation without magnetic fields in strained semiconductors. Nature 427: 50–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marston, Richard C. 2011. Portfolio Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Anari, Ali. 2010. The Power of Profit: Business and Economic Analyses, Forecasting, and Stock Valuation. Edited by James W. Kolari. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhiyanski, Miglena, Alexander Gikov, Stoyan Nedkov, Petar Dimitrov, and Lora Naydenova. 2016. Mapping Carbon Storage Using Land Cover/Land Use Data in the Area of Beklemeto, Central Balkan. In Sustainable Mountain Regions: Challenges and Perspectives in Southeastern Europe, ed. Boian Koulov and Georgi Zhelezov, 53–65. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maritime Studies.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. Rings Discovered Around an Asteroid for the First Time. IFLScience. IFLScience. March 26.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Should Improve Outcomes, but Progress Is Still Lagging Overall. GAO-11-450T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marshall, Laura Delano. 2015. The jeweled net, sacred landscape, and the vision of the heart. Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, George. 2015. That Extra Mile for Love. New York Times, October 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batty 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Batty 2008; Lewenstein and Sanpera 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lewenstein and Sanpera 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kato et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMaritime Studies
AbbreviationMarit. Stud.
ISSN (online)2212-9790
ScopeAquatic Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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