How to format your references using the Maritime Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Maritime Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dovidio, John F. 2009. Psychology. Racial bias, unspoken but heard. Science (New York, N.Y.) 326: 1641–1642.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpson, Stephen J., and John Travis. 2007. Testing our defenses. Science (New York, N.Y.) 317: 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Junfeng, Bin Wang, and Huihe Qiu. 2014. Coalescence and breakup of oppositely charged droplets. Scientific reports 4: 7123.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
de Heer, Walt A., Philippe Poncharal, Claire Berger, Joseph Gezo, Zhimin Song, Jefferson Bettini, and Daniel Ugarte. 2005. Liquid carbon, carbon-glass beads, and the crystallization of carbon nanotubes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 307: 907–910.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uribe, Simón. 2017. Frontier Road. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tran, Hoa Trong. 2016. Intraplate Magmatism and Metallogeny of North Vietnam. Edited by Gleb V. Polyakov, Anh Tuan Tran, Alexander S. Borisenko, Andrey E. Izokh, Pavel A. Balykin, Phuong Thi Ngo, and Dung Thi Pham. Vol. 11. Modern Approaches in Solid Earth Sciences. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, Bernett T. K., and Vladimir Brusic. 2008. Allergen Bioinformatics. In Immunoinformatics, ed. Christian Schönbach, Shoba Ranganathan, and Vladimir Brusic, 91–107. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Maritime Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2015. Males Prove Mosquito Weak Link. IFLScience. IFLScience. October 28.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Comments on Energy Research and Development Administration’s Proposed Arrangement for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Demonstration Plant Project. RED-75-361. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Minick, Vanessa. 2010. Educators’ Beliefs About and Approaches to the Evaluation of Student Writing. Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2016. When the Loch Ness Monster Was in The Times. New York Times, April 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dovidio 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Simpson and Travis 2007; Dovidio 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simpson and Travis 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (de Heer et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleMaritime Studies
AbbreviationMarit. Stud.
ISSN (online)2212-9790
ScopeAquatic Science
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Water Science and Technology
Geography, Planning and Development

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