How to format your references using the Journal of Oncological Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oncological Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. Call for more accelerator research. Nature. 2000;405(6790):988.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gaffney KJ, Chapman HN. Imaging atomic structure and dynamics with ultrafast x-ray scattering. Science. 2007;316(5830):1444-1448.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cronin TW, Caldwell RL, Marshall J. Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp. Nature. 2001;411(6837):547-548.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Walensky LD, Kung AL, Escher I, et al. Activation of apoptosis in vivo by a hydrocarbon-stapled BH3 helix. Science. 2004;305(5689):1466-1470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henderson TJ. Beyond Borders. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Surman CBH, ed. ADHD in Adults: A Practical Guide to Evaluation and Management. Humana Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Nicholson BD. Anticonvulsant Medications for Treatment of Neuropathic and “Functional” Pain. In: Deer TR, Leong MS, Gordin V, eds. Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical Approaches: The AMERICAN ACADEMY of PAIN MEDICINE Textbook on Patient Management. Springer; 2015:51-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oncological Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Robots Can’t Kill You – Claiming They Can is Dangerous. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status of Federal and Private Research and Development Efforts To Conserve Energy by Reducing Electric Power Transmission Losses. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCullough J. Functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. A retrospective study to determine if these factors are correlated in a clinical setting. A project report. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vizard MM. In the Region /Westchester; Avalon Joins New Roc City for New Rochelle Revival. New York Times. October 31, 1999:1111.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oncological Science
ISSN (print)2452-3364

Other styles