How to format your references using the Journal of Oncological Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oncological Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Held I. Climate change. Simplicity amid complexity. Science. 2014;343(6176):1206-1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Murphy JJ, Melchiorre P. Organic chemistry: Light opens pathways for nickel catalysis. Nature. 2015;524(7565):297-298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hamano K, Abe Y, Genda H. Emergence of two types of terrestrial planet on solidification of magma ocean. Nature. 2013;497(7451):607-610.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jokat W, Ritzmann O, Schmidt-Aursch MC, Drachev S, Gauger S, Snow J. Geophysical evidence for reduced melt production on the Arctic ultraslow Gakkel mid-ocean ridge. Nature. 2003;423(6943):962-965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitola J III. Software Radio Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
Zopounidis C, Doumpos M, Pardalos PM, eds. Handbook of Financial Engineering. Vol 18. Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Cleophas TJ, Zwinderman AH. Bhattacharya Analysis. In: Zwinderman AH, ed. Machine Learning in Medicine: Part Two. Springer Netherlands; 2013:27-38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oncological Science.

Blog post
Luntz S. Single-Celled Organism Evolves Sophisticated Eye. IFLScience. Published July 3, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Improvements Needed in DOT’s Hazardous Materials Rail Safety Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis LV. Oxidation Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Iron Phthalocyanine Thin Films. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Rout Leaves Jets’ Hopes in Peril and Fitzpatrick’s Job in Jeopardy. New York Times. October 18, 2016:B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oncological Science
ISSN (print)2452-3364

Other styles