How to format your references using the Marine Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Walther G-R. Ecology. Tackling ecological complexity in climate impact research. Science 2007;315:606–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scott IC, Stainier DYR. Development. Fishing out a new heart. Science 2002;298:2141–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pagel M, Venditti C, Meade A. Large punctuational contribution of speciation to evolutionary divergence at the molecular level. Science 2006;314:119–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hodgkin ST, Oppenheimer BR, Hambly NC, Jameson RF, Smartt SJ, Steele IA. Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star. Nature 2000;403:57–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonald T, Feuillet M. Network Performance Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Lipton AM. The Common Sense Guide to Dementia For Clinicians and Caregivers. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hafez AI, Hassanien AE, Fahmy AA. Testing Community Detection Algorithms: A Closer Look at Datasets. In: Panda M, Dehuri S, Wang G-N, editors. Social Networking: Mining, Visualization, and Security, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 85–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Structures.

Blog post
Fang J. New Stars Born at Milky Way’s Edge. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Regulatory Burden. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari S. The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wihbey J, Beaudet M. Financial Disclosure, Wrapped in Secrecy. New York Times 2016:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Structures
AbbreviationMar. Struct.
ISSN (print)0951-8339
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Ocean Engineering
General Materials Science

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