How to format your references using the Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. Radar Satellites: Mountains to Molehills. Nature 2007, 446, 22–23.
A journal article with 2 authors
May, M.; Brody, H. Nature Index 2015 Asia-Pacific. Nature 2015, 519, S49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Muheim, R.; Phillips, J.B.; Akesson, S. Polarized Light Cues Underlie Compass Calibration in Migratory Songbirds. Science 2006, 313, 837–839.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stone, M.D.; Mihalusova, M.; O’connor, C.M.; Prathapam, R.; Collins, K.; Zhuang, X. Stepwise Protein-Mediated RNA Folding Directs Assembly of Telomerase Ribonucleoprotein. Nature 2007, 446, 458–461.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian, M.N. Plastics Additives and Testing; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118710128.
An edited book
Ghorpade, S.R. A Course in Calculus and Real Analysis; Limaye, B.V., Ed.; Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics; Springer: New York, NY, 2006; ISBN 9780387305301.
A chapter in an edited book
Brank, E.M. Baby Boomers at Work: Growing Older and Working More. In Disability and Aging Discrimination: Perspectives in Law and Psychology; Wiener, R.L., Willborn, S.L., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 93–105 ISBN 9781441962928.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viruses.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Radar Probes Titan’s Seas and Magic Islands Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Organization Organic Act; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyle, C.N. Support Program for Transition Age Youth: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berkman, S. Mets’ Matz Needs Elbow Surgery in Another Blow to the Rotation. New York Times 2017, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViruses
ISSN (online)1999-4915
Infectious Diseases

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