How to format your references using the Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christianson, D.W. Chemistry. Roots of Biosynthetic Diversity. Science 2007, 316, 60–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Falk, A.; Szech, N. Morals and Markets. Science 2013, 340, 707–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Newhall, C.G.; Power, J.A.; Punongbayan, R.S. Pinatubo Eruption. “To Make Grow.” Science 2002, 295, 1241–1242.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mitra, K.; Schaffitzel, C.; Shaikh, T.; Tama, F.; Jenni, S.; Brooks, C.L., 3rd; Ban, N.; Frank, J. Structure of the E. Coli Protein-Conducting Channel Bound to a Translating Ribosome. Nature 2005, 438, 318–324.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jelaska, D. Gears and Gear Drives; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118392393.
An edited book
Information Security: 17th International Conference, ISC 2014, Hong Kong, China, October 12-14, 2014. Proceedings; Chow, S.S.M., Camenisch, J., Hui, L.C.K., Yiu, S.M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; Vol. 8783; ISBN 9783319132563.
A chapter in an edited book
Sharapov, V.; Sotula, Z.; Kunickaya, L. Transducers with Non-Destructive Control. In Piezo-Electric Electro-Acoustic Transducers; Sotula, Z., Kunickaya, L., Eds.; Microtechnology and MEMS; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 73–89 ISBN 9783319011974.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viruses.

Blog post
Andrew, E. An Insight Into The Domestication Of Barnyard Chickens (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Technology Innovation: Improving the Climate for Government-Industry Cooperation; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jahan, M. A Policy to Protect Hoarders: An Analysis of Fair Housing Amendments Act, 1988. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. Friday File. New York Times 2015, C26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViruses
ISSN (online)1999-4915
Infectious Diseases

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