How to format your references using the Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenman, C.D. Cancer. Haploinsufficient gene selection in cancer. Science 2012, 337, 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Metrangolo, P.; Resnati, G. Chemistry. Halogen versus hydrogen. Science 2008, 321, 918–919.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dolan, J.F.; Christofferson, S.A.; Shaw, J.H. Recognition of paleoearthquakes on the Puente Hills blind thrust fault, California. Science 2003, 300, 115–118.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Burg, T.P.; Godin, M.; Knudsen, S.M.; Shen, W.; Carlson, G.; Foster, J.S.; Babcock, K.; Manalis, S.R. Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid. Nature 2007, 446, 1066–1069.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pease, G. Optimize Your Greatest Asset-Your People; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119040002.
An edited book
Underwater Acoustics and Ocean Dynamics: Proceedings of the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference; Zhou, L., Xu, W., Cheng, Q., Zhao, H., Eds.; Springer: Singapore, 2016; ISBN 9789811024214.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakamura, T. How to Recover Minor Rare Metals from E-Scrap. In Rare Metal Technology 2015; Neelameggham, N.R., Alam, S., Oosterhof, H., Jha, A., Dreisinger, D., Wang, S., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 37–44 ISBN 9783319486062.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viruses.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Is Venus Still Erupting? (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Barriers to Competition in the Airline Industry; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schoenecker, K.D. Determinants of life satisfaction: Generated and ranked by undergraduate college students. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M. National Opera Names General Director. New York Times 2017, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViruses
ISSN (online)1999-4915
Infectious Diseases

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