How to format your references using the Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flier, J.S. Neuroscience. Regulating energy balance: the substrate strikes back. Science 2006, 312, 861–864.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, S.; Coulter, D. Neuroscience. Neuronal birth to cortical circuitry. Science 2013, 340, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 3 authors
Worobey, M.; Han, G.-Z.; Rambaut, A. A synchronized global sweep of the internal genes of modern avian influenza virus. Nature 2014, 508, 254–257.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, X.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, X.; Gu, M. Giant refractive-index modulation by two-photon reduction of fluorescent graphene oxides for multimode optical recording. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williamson, T. Identity and Discrimination; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118503591.
An edited book
Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory, and Executive Control; Gruszka, A., Matthews, G., Szymura, B., Eds.; The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality; First.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; ISBN 9781441912091.
A chapter in an edited book
Cheng, H.; Labahn, G. A Practical Implementation of a Modular Algorithm for Ore Polynomial Matrices. In Computer Mathematics: 9th Asian Symposium (ASCM2009), Fukuoka, December 2009, 10th Asian Symposium (ASCM2012), Beijing, October 2012, Contributed Papers and Invited Talks; Feng, R., Lee, W.-S., Sato, Y., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 49–59 ISBN 9783662437988.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viruses.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Monkey Minds: What We Can Learn From Primate Personality Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit Grants: If Properly Implemented, FTA Initiatives Should Improve Oversight; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Panteleyeva, N.B. Statistical methods of latent structure discovery in child-directed speech. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Overstuffed Nod to Tradition. New York Times 2008, NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViruses
ISSN (online)1999-4915
Infectious Diseases

Other styles