How to format your references using the Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J. CALL TO ARMS: Diversity: Easier Said Than Done. Science 2000, 289, 378–379.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dresselhaus, M.S.; Thomas, I.L. Alternative Energy Technologies. Nature 2001, 414, 332–337.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bliss, T.V.P.; Collingridge, G.L.; Laroche, S. Neuroscience. ZAP and ZIP, a Story to Forget. Science 2006, 313, 1058–1059.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Q.; Owens, J.R.; Han, C.; Sumpter, B.G.; Lu, W.; Bernholc, J.; Meunier, V.; Maksymovych, P.; Fuentes-Cabrera, M.; Pan, M. Self-Organized and Cu-Coordinated Surface Linear Polymerization. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zaragoza Dörwald, F. Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2004; ISBN 9783527604265.
An edited book
Responsible Innovation 1: Innovative Solutions for Global Issues; van den Hoven, J., Doorn, N., Swierstra, T., Koops, B.-J., Romijn, H., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2014; ISBN 9789401789554.
A chapter in an edited book
Turner, B. Specialized Agencies of the UN. In The Statesman’s Yearbook: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World 2013; Turner, B., Ed.; Palgrave Macmillan UK: London, 2012; pp. 13–24 ISBN 9780230360099.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viruses.

Blog post
Taub, B. Scientists Have Found The Source Of Emotional Resilience In The Brain (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Department of Education Grant Award; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stanford, C.J. Highly Sensitive Fiber Bragg Grating Biosensors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. Trump Has Defended His Own Leak. He Has Been Far Less Forgiving of Others. New York Times 2017, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViruses
ISSN (online)1999-4915
Infectious Diseases

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