How to format your references using the Viruses citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Viruses. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wellems, T.E. Plasmodium Chloroquine Resistance and the Search for a Replacement Antimalarial Drug. Science 2002, 298, 124–126.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wei, H.-R.; Deng, F.-G. Scalable Quantum Computing Based on Stationary Spin Qubits in Coupled Quantum Dots inside Double-Sided Optical Microcavities. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7551.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reinhard, C.T.; Planavsky, N.J.; Lyons, T.W. Long-Term Sedimentary Recycling of Rare Sulphur Isotope Anomalies. Nature 2013, 497, 100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, K.; Wang, L.; Hu, Z.; Cheng, F.; Chen, J. Ultrasmall Li2S Nanoparticles Anchored in Graphene Nanosheets for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6467.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan, S.Y. Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.: Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore, 2012; ISBN 9781118188606.
An edited book
Alvarez, R.H. Handbook of HER2-Targeted Agents in Breast Cancer; Cortés, J., Mattos-Arruda, L.D., Falzon, M., Fasolo, A., Gandy, M., Gianni, L., Harbeck, N., Piccart, M., Zambelli, S., Zardavas, D., Eds.; Springer Healthcare Ltd.: Tarporley, 2013; ISBN 9781907673931.
A chapter in an edited book
Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.; Merkuryev, Y.; Oleinikova, I. Optimal Initial States Method. In Dynamic Management of Sustainable Development: Methods for Large Technical Systems; Mutule, A., Merkuryev, Y., Oleinikova, I., Eds.; Springer: London, 2011; pp. 45–56 ISBN 9780857290557.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Viruses.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Tasty Treat: How We Showed Fat To Be The Sixth Taste Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd, W.E. Relational Programming in MiniKanren: Techniques, Applications, and Implementations. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. The Rise of Surreality TV. New York Times 2017, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleViruses
ISSN (online)1999-4915
Infectious Diseases

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