How to format your references using the Marine Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner W (2014) Conservation. Sensing biodiversity. Science 346:301–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krabbenhoft DP, Sunderland EM (2013) Environmental science. Global change and mercury. Science 341:1457–1458.
A journal article with 3 authors
Agrawal T, Schu P, Medigeshi GR (2013) Adaptor protein complexes-1 and 3 are involved at distinct stages of flavivirus life-cycle. Sci Rep 3:1813.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stecyk JAW, Stensløkken K-O, Farrell AP, Nilsson GE (2004) Maintained cardiac pumping in anoxic crucian carp. Science 306:77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson JC, Naeim F (2012) Basic Structural Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Qian Z, Cao L, Su W, Wang T, Yang H (eds) (2012) Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering: Volume 3. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Axelsson E, Claessen K, Sheeran M (2005) Wired: Wire-Aware Circuit Design. In: Borrione D, Paul W (eds) Correct Hardware Design and Verification Methods: 13th IFIP WG 10.5 Advanced Research Working Conference, CHARME 2005, Saarbrücken, Germany, October 3-6, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 5–19

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Biology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2015) Watch This Stingray “Inhale” A Spider Crab. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Proposed Closure of VOA Dixon Relay Station. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Farrugia TJ (2010) Abundance, habitat use and movement patterns of the shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatus productus) in a restored Southern California estuary. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2013) Over 50, and Under No Illusions. New York Times BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Krabbenhoft and Sunderland 2013; Turner 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krabbenhoft and Sunderland 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Stecyk et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Biology
AbbreviationMar. Biol.
ISSN (print)0025-3162
ISSN (online)1432-1793
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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