How to format your references using the Marine Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Marine Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sachdev S (2012) Physics. Entangling superconductivity and antiferromagnetism. Science 336:1510–1511.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wain-Hobson S, Weiss RA (2000) If free speech costs lives that’s a high price to pay. Nature 407:834.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rey PF, Coltice N, Flament N (2014) Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics. Nature 513:405–408.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen M, Wang Y-H, Wang Y, Huang L, Sandoval H, Liu Y-J, Wang J (2006) Dendritic cell apoptosis in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Science 311:1160–1164.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kappe CO, Stadler A, Dallinger D (2012) Microwaves in Organic and Medicinal Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Werner C (ed) (2006) Polymers for Regenerative Medicine. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Fujishiro M (2009) Gastrointestinal Epithelial Neoplasms: Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (Methodology). In: Hayat MA (ed) Gastrointestinal Carcinoma. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 29–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Marine Biology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Four Easy Tips To Make Your Batteries Last Longer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Radio Frequencies: Earlier Coordination Could Improve System Use and Save Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard AG (2009) Large margin transformation learning. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2016) Overlooked Influences in Trump’s Life: A Famous Minister and His Church. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sachdev 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Wain-Hobson and Weiss 2000; Sachdev 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wain-Hobson and Weiss 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleMarine Biology
AbbreviationMar. Biol.
ISSN (print)0025-3162
ISSN (online)1432-1793
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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