How to format your references using the African Journal of Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Macklis RM. Portrait of Science. Scientist, technologist, proto-feminist, superstar. Science 2002;295:1647–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Jazayeri M, Movshon JA. A new perceptual illusion reveals mechanisms of sensory decoding. Nature 2007;446:912–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Nazir S, Amin B, Schwingenschlögl U. Suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas in LaGaO3/SrTiO3 by cation intermixing. Sci Rep 2013;3:3409.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Ahuja G, Ivandic I, Saltürk M, Oka Y, Nadler W, Korsching SI. Zebrafish crypt neurons project to a single, identified mediodorsal glomerulus. Sci Rep 2013;3:2063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Boero R. Behavioral Computational Social Science. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
[1]
Evans M, Zimmermann A, editors. Global Perspectives on Subsidiarity. vol. 37. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Elovici Y, Shabtai A, Moskovitch R, Tahan G, Glezer C. Applying Machine Learning Techniques for Detection of Malicious Code in Network Traffic. In: Hertzberg J, Beetz M, Englert R, editors. KI 2007: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 30th Annual German Conference on AI, KI 2007, Osnabrück, Germany, September 10-13, 2007. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007, p. 44–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Urology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Human Head Transplants Could Become A Reality By 2017. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/human-head-transplants-could-become-reality-2017/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Environmental Satellites: Polar-orbiting Satellite Acquisition Faces Delays; Decisions Needed on Whether and How to Ensure Climate Data Continuity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Wylie RW. Response to Intervention: A Study of Intervention Programs in Rural Secondary Schools. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Williams J. The Best Laid Schemes of Mules and Men. New York Times 2017:C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Urology
AbbreviationAfr. J. Urol.
ISSN (print)1110-5704
ScopeUrology

Other styles