How to format your references using the African Journal of Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisk D. The Urban Challenge. Science 2012;336:1396–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karlan D, Zinman J. Microcredit in theory and practice: using randomized credit scoring for impact evaluation. Science 2011;332:1278–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder SA, Gollner A, Chiriac MI. Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis. Nature 2011;474:461–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Puschnig P, Berkebile S, Fleming AJ, Koller G, Emtsev K, Seyller T, et al. Reconstruction of molecular orbital densities from photoemission data. Science 2009;326:702–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caferra R. Logic for Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
Liang R, editor. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies: Design and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang Y, Li P, Zhu Q. Chinese Argument Extraction Based on Trigger Mapping. In: Zhou G, Li J, Zhao D, Feng Y, editors. Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Second CCF Conference, NLPCC 2013, Chongqing, China, November 15-19, 2013, Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 41–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Urology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Caterpillar uses toxic breath as a defense mechanism. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on the Solar Power Satellite Research, Development, and Demonstration Program Act of 1978. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson M. A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly S. Children’s Books;The Wonderful World of Dahl. New York Times 1996:733.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Urology
AbbreviationAfr. J. Urol.
ISSN (print)1110-5704

Other styles