How to format your references using the African Journal of Urology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for African Journal of Urology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Blelloch R. Journal club. A computational biologist looks at how mRNA length changes during development. Nature 2009;462:141.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Morriswood B, Warren G. Cell biology. Stalemate in the Golgi battle. Science 2013;341:1465–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Peirce V, Carobbio S, Vidal-Puig A. The different shades of fat. Nature 2014;510:76–83.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Brodersen P, Sakvarelidze-Achard L, Bruun-Rasmussen M, Dunoyer P, Yamamoto YY, Sieburth L, et al. Widespread translational inhibition by plant miRNAs and siRNAs. Science 2008;320:1185–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Wells JT. Corporate Fraud Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Ehrenfeld JM, Urman RD, Segal S, editors. Anesthesia Student Survival Guide: A Case-Based Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Hu J. The Probability That Random Positive Integers Are 3-Wise Relatively Prime. In: Nathanson MB, editor. Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory: CANT 2011 and 2012, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 55–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for African Journal of Urology.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. EdX To Offer Free Advanced Placement Courses For High Schoolers. IFLScience 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. NASA: Human Space Exploration Programs Face Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Hogue ML. A Case Study of Perspectives on Building School and Community Partnerships. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Kelly M. Saint Hillary. New York Times 1993:622.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAfrican Journal of Urology
AbbreviationAfr. J. Urol.
ISSN (print)1110-5704
ScopeUrology

Other styles