How to format your references using the Manufacturing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manufacturing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liechty J. Scientists and bankers - a new model army. Nature 2012;484:143.
A journal article with 2 authors
Trottier Y, Mandel JL. Biomedicine. Huntingtin--profit and loss. Science 2001;293:445–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang S, Pollack HN, Shen PY. Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures. Nature 2000;403:756–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yuan S, Wang J, Zhu D, Wang N, Gao Q, Chen W, et al. Cryo-EM structure of a herpesvirus capsid at 3.1 Å. Science 2018;360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Svrcek WY, Mahoney DP, Young BR. A Real-Time Approach to Process Control. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2007.
An edited book
Sachse A. OpenGeoSys-Tutorial: Computational Hydrology I: Groundwater Flow Modeling. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Acchar W, Dultra EJV. Coffee Industry in Brazil. In: J. V. Dultra E, editor. Ceramic Materials from Coffee Bagasse Ash Waste, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 23–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manufacturing Letters.

Blog post
Hamilton K. What’s At The Bottom Of The Deepest Hole On Earth? IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Review of Vending Operations on Federally Controlled Property. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lupian S. Educating the Latino community on the relationship between obesity and psychosocial well being. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Giordano MA, Phillips AM. Mayor Hits Nerve in Remarks On Class Sizes and Teachers. New York Times 2011:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleManufacturing Letters
AbbreviationManuf. Lett.
ISSN (print)2213-8463
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles