How to format your references using the Manufacturing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Manufacturing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGillicuddy DJ Jr. Oceans. Eddies masquerade as planetary waves. Science 2011;334:318–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mackinnon MJ, Marsh K. The selection landscape of malaria parasites. Science 2010;328:866–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mueller K, Hough SE, Bilham R. Analysing the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes with recent instrumentally recorded aftershocks. Nature 2004;429:284–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsukamoto S, Hara T, Yamamoto A, Kito S, Minami N, Kubota T, et al. Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability. Sci Rep 2014;4:4533.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul CR. Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Rout T, O’Connor RV, Dorling A, editors. Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 15th International Conference, SPICE 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden, June 16-17, 2015. Proceedings. vol. 526. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Lefteriu S, Antoulas AC. A New Adaptive Approach to Modeling Measured Multi-Port Scattering Parameters. In: Roos J, Costa LRJ, editors. Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering SCEE 2008, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 21–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Manufacturing Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E. Drug Could Rejuvenate Aging Brain And Muscle Tissue. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Biomedical Research: NIH Should Assess the Impact of Growth in Indirect Costs on Its Mission. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson TF. The Aircraft Electric Taxi System: A Qualitative Multi Case Study. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Theater; Song, Dance and the Devil. New York Times 2016:AR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleManufacturing Letters
AbbreviationManuf. Lett.
ISSN (print)2213-8463
ScopeIndustrial and Manufacturing Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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