How to format your references using the Neuropsychiatric Electrophysiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neuropsychiatric Electrophysiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Grubb M. Emissions trading: Cap and trade finds new energy. Nature. 2012;491:666–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mitchell-Olds T, Knight CA. Evolution. Chaperones as buffering agents? Science. 2002;296:2348–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ji M, Odelius M, Gaffney KJ. Large angular jump mechanism observed for hydrogen bond exchange in aqueous perchlorate solution. Science. 2010;328:1003–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Matsuoka T, Ahlberg PE, Kessaris N, Iannarelli P, Dennehy U, Richardson WD, et al. Neural crest origins of the neck and shoulder. Nature. 2005;436:347–55.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Thornicroft G, Semrau M, Alem A, Drake RE, Ito H, Mari J, et al. Community Mental Health. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Oscoz J, Galicia D, Miranda R, editors. Identification Guide of Freshwater Macroinvertebrates of Spain. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hallinger P, Bridges EM. INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGY AND PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING. In: Bridges EM, editor. A Problem-based Approach for Management Education: Preparing Managers for Action. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007. p. 91–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neuropsychiatric Electrophysiology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. The Story Of The Dinosaurs Is About To Get A Major Rewrite [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Delta Teachers Academy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 May. Report No.: RCED-94-213R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Adams S. A study of childhood eating habits in the United States and their association with race and gender [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton’s Staff Sees Campaign As a Real War. New York Times. 1992 Aug 11;A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeuropsychiatric Electrophysiology
AbbreviationNeuropsychiatr. Electrophysiol.
ISSN (online)2055-4788

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