How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt S. 2011. Diagnostics: a testing journey. Nature 474(7350):S20-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waddell S, Quinn WG. 2001. Neurobiology. Learning how a fruit fly forgets. Science 293(5533):1271–1272.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mollicone D, Eva HD, Achard F. 2006. Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires. Nature 440(7083):436–437.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ward PD, Botha J, Buick R, et al. 2005. Abrupt and gradual extinction among Late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo basin, South Africa. Science 307(5710):709–714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson TR. 2010. Genetics for Dummies®. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Lee R, editor. 2011. Computers,Networks, Systems, and Industrial Engineering 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. XVI, 268 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Filho FC, da S. Brito PH, Rubira CMF. 2006. Reasoning About Exception Flow at the Architectural Level. In: Butler M, Jones CB, Romanovsky A, Troubitsyna E, editors. Rigorous Development of Complex Fault-Tolerant Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 80–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. The Science Of Hangovers. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Issues Related to an Independent FAA. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson CA. 2014. A cultural confluence: Approaches to embedding cultural insights and inclusion throughout the marketing process.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 2007. List of Weak Schools Claims 2, Removes One. New York Times :14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Res.
ISSN (print)0736-0266
ISSN (online)1554-527X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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