How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Engelman A. 2007. AIDS/HIV. A reversal of fortune in HIV-1 integration. Science 316(5833):1855–1857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vetter IR, Wittinghofer A. 2001. The guanine nucleotide-binding switch in three dimensions. Science 294(5545):1299–1304.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schrater PR, Knill DC, Simoncelli EP. 2001. Perceiving visual expansion without optic flow. Nature 410(6830):816–819.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Veneti Z, Bentley JK, Koana T, et al. 2005. A functional dosage compensation complex required for male killing in Drosophila. Science 307(5714):1461–1463.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li F-C, Yu B, Wei J-J, Kawaguchi Y. 2011. Turbulent Drag Reduction by Surfactant Additives. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Chen C. 2016. Big Visual Data Analysis: Scene Classification and Geometric Labeling, 1st ed. 2016. Singapore: Springer. X, 122 p. 94 illus., 12 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Gu L, Zhou M, Kang Q, Zhou A. 2015. A Scalable Framework for Universal Data Generation in Parallel. In: Nambiar R, Poess M, editors. Performance Characterization and Benchmarking. Traditional to Big Data: 6th TPC Technology Conference, TPCTC 2014, Hangzhou, China, September 1--5, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing. p 64–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Research.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Goliath Grouper Fish Swallows 5 Foot Shark In A Single Bite. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Public/Private Cooperation Needed to Avoid Major Disruptions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bombard B. 2012. Literature circles book club for science and language arts.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski SF. 2015. All the Presidents’ Memorabilia. New York Times :C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Res.
ISSN (print)0736-0266
ISSN (online)1554-527X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles