How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Frommer WB. 2010. Biochemistry. CO2mmon sense. Science 327(5963):275–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Freidin E, Kacelnik A. 2011. Rational choice, context dependence, and the value of information in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Science 334(6058):1000–1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Martens JA, Laprade L, Winston F. 2004. Intergenic transcription is required to repress the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SER3 gene. Nature 429(6991):571–574.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Krumme C, Llorente A, Cebrian M, et al. 2013. The predictability of consumer visitation patterns. Sci. Rep. 3:1645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lißner K, Rug W. 2016. Der Eurocode 5 für Deutschland Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten. Berlin, Germany: Wilhelm Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
1.
Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D, editors. 2012. Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World: Volume 2: Remediation of Air and Water Pollution. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. XX, 548 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chang W. 2010. Fighting Cybercrime: A KM Perspective. In: Chen H, Chau M, Li S-H, et al., editors. Intelligence and Security Informatics: Pacific Asia Workshop, PAISI 2010, Hyderabad, India, June 21, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p 28–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Research.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. 2014. Study Reveals Half of Americans Buy Into Medical Conspiracy Theories. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/study-reveals-half-americans-buy-medical-conspiracy-theories/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. 1984. ASCS Needs Better Information To Adequately Assess Proposed County and State Office Automation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Whitehead CF. 2010. Teacher perceptions of the effects of parentification on social interactions in the school setting.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Neuman W. 2015. Brutal Past and Promising Future Clash in Colombian City. New York Times :A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Res.
ISSN (print)0736-0266
ISSN (online)1554-527X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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