How to format your references using the Journal of Orthopaedic Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Orthopaedic Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smetacek V. 2002. Microbial food webs. The ocean’s veil. Nature 419(6907):565.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barbraud C, Weimerskirch H. 2001. Emperor penguins and climate change. Nature 411(6834):183–186.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joo W, Hippenmeyer S, Luo L. 2014. Neurodevelopment. Dendrite morphogenesis depends on relative levels of NT-3/TrkC signaling. Science 346(6209):626–629.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Zeng J, Wang X, Sun J, et al. 2013. Manipulating complex light with metamaterials. Sci. Rep. 3:2826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thériault M, Rosiers FD. 2011. Modeling Urban Dynamics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Fan X, editor. 2009. Advanced Photonic Structures for Biological and Chemical Detection. New York, NY: Springer. XX, 540 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Tian W-C, Finehout E. 2009. Genetic Analysis in Miniaturized Electrophoresis Systems. In: Finehout E, Tian W-C, editors. Microfluidics for Biological Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US. p 117–163.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Orthopaedic Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. How To Control Someone Else’s Arm Using Your Brain. IFLScience [cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Social Security: Observations on Improving Distribution of Death Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McNeil JN. 2017. “I noticed something wrong”: Lived experiences of women of color who faced a protracted journey to diagnosis with lupus.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2010. A Goal Apart in ’08, Face to Face Now. New York Times :B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Orthopaedic Research
AbbreviationJ. Orthop. Res.
ISSN (print)0736-0266
ISSN (online)1554-527X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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