How to format your references using the Mammalian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mammalian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koenig, R., 2005. Profile. South Africa’s bone man: 80 and still digging into the past. Science 310, 608–609.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bezdek, R., Wendling, R., 2005. Recruiters and industry. Job creation and environmental protection. Nature 434, 678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kent, A., Massar, S., Silman, J., 2014. Secure and robust transmission and verification of unknown quantum states in Minkowski space. Sci. Rep. 4, 3901.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Halloran, M.E., Longini, I.M., Jr, Nizam, A., Yang, Y., 2002. Containing bioterrorist smallpox. Science 298, 1428–1432.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead, D.E., 2013. Becoming a Marriage and Family Therapist. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Cold, G.E., Juul, N. (Eds.), 2008. Monitoring of Cerebral and Spinal Haemodynamics During Neurosurgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Harrod, R.P., Martin, D.L., 2014. Beyond the Southwest: Is There a Relationship Between Climate and Violence?, in: Martin, D.L. (Ed.), Bioarchaeology of Climate Change and Violence: Ethical Considerations, SpringerBriefs in Anthropology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mammalian Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Last Of Her Kind, This 100-Year-Old Turtle May Soon Be A Mom [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Acquisition Approach for Commercial Crew Transportation Includes Good Practices, but Faces Significant Challenges (No. GAO-12-282). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailoor, S., 2016. Implicit-Explicit Time stepping for a Two-Dimensional Inviscid Fluid-Structure Interaction Solver (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. A Wolf Roaming the Vatican. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koenig, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bezdek and Wendling, 2005; Koenig, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bezdek and Wendling, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Halloran et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMammalian Biology
AbbreviationMamm. Biol.
ISSN (print)1616-5047
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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