How to format your references using the Mammalian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mammalian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A., 2015. Animal behaviour: Come mate with me. Nature 526, S8-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luzzatto, L., Notaro, R., 2001. Malaria. Protecting against bad air. Science 293, 442–443.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galbraith, C.G., Yamada, K.M., Galbraith, J.A., 2007. Polymerizing actin fibers position integrins primed to probe for adhesion sites. Science 315, 992–995.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hommelsheim, C.M., Frantzeskakis, L., Huang, M., Ülker, B., 2014. PCR amplification of repetitive DNA: a limitation to genome editing technologies and many other applications. Sci. Rep. 4, 5052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson, T.R., 2010. Genetics for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bilimoria, K.Y., Minami, C.A., Mahvi, D.M. (Eds.), 2015. Comparative Effectiveness in Surgical Oncology: Key Questions and How to Answer Them, Cancer Treatment and Research. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Basu, D., Lin, Q., Chen, W., Vo, H.T., Yuan, Z., Senellart, P., Bressan, S., 2016. Regularized Cost-Model Oblivious Database Tuning with Reinforcement Learning, in: Hameurlain, A., Küng, J., Wagner, R., Chen, Q. (Eds.), Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems XXVIII: Special Issue on Database- and Expert-Systems Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 96–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mammalian Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. There Is Still A Glimmer of Hope for Jade Rabbit [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Drug Testing: Undercover Tests Reveal Significant Vulnerabilities in DOT’s Drug Testing Program (No. GAO-08-225T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, G.S., 2008. The relationship between legislative implementations and educator readiness in inclusive educational environments (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schulman, M., White, A., 2017. At Camp John Waters, a Band of ‘Filthy Freaks.’ New York Times ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Luzzatto and Notaro, 2001; Maxmen, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luzzatto and Notaro, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Hommelsheim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMammalian Biology
AbbreviationMamm. Biol.
ISSN (print)1616-5047
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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