How to format your references using the Mammalian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mammalian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Theissen, G., 2001. Genetics of identity. Nature 414, 491.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benfey, P.N., Mitchell-Olds, T., 2008. From genotype to phenotype: systems biology meets natural variation. Science 320, 495–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, G.C., Du, F., Varshavsky, A., 2000. Peptides accelerate their uptake by activating a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Nature 405, 579–583.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, J.J., Choi, Y., Suresh, S., Argon, A.S., 2002. Nanocrystallization during nanoindentation of a bulk amorphous metal alloy at room temperature. Science 295, 654–657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pepper, G., Oliver, M.J., 2006. The Liquidity Theory of Asset Prices. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Ghilardi, S., Sebastiani, R. (Eds.), 2009. Frontiers of Combining Systems: 7th International Symposium, FroCoS 2009, Trento, Italy, September 16-18, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Quintiere, J.G., 2008. Questions on the WTC Investigation, in: Pasman, H.J., Kirillov, I.A. (Eds.), Resilience of Cities to Terrorist and Other Threats: Learning from 9/11 and Further Research Issues, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 87–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mammalian Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Parts Of The Persian Gulf Could Be Unsafe For Humans By 2100 Due To Climate Change [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Aviation Safety and Security: Challenges to Implementing the Recommendations of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security (No. T-RCED-97-90). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Camaya, C., 2015. Teachers’ perceptions of social skills instruction for children with autism spectrum disorders (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2014. Comics Sales Rise, in Paper and Pixels. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Theissen, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Benfey and Mitchell-Olds, 2008; Theissen, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benfey and Mitchell-Olds, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleMammalian Biology
AbbreviationMamm. Biol.
ISSN (print)1616-5047
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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