How to format your references using the Mammalian Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mammalian Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kideys, A.E., 2002. Ecology. Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem. Science 297, 1482–1484.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taberlet, P., Cheddadi, R., 2002. Ecology. Quaternary refugia and persistence of biodiversity. Science 297, 2009–2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
Visel, A., Rubin, E.M., Pennacchio, L.A., 2009. Genomic views of distant-acting enhancers. Nature 461, 199–205.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maragliano, C., Lilliu, S., Dahlem, M.S., Chiesa, M., Souier, T., Stefancich, M., 2014. Quantifying charge carrier concentration in ZnO thin films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy. Sci. Rep. 4, 4203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grimble, M.J., 2006. Robust Industrial Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England.
An edited book
Palmer, J.S. (Ed.), 2011. Pediatric Urology: A General Urologist’s Guide, Current Clinical Urology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Kang, R., Tang, D., 2016. What Is the Pathobiology of Inflammation to Cell Death? Apoptosis, Necrosis, Necroptosis, Autophagic Cell Death, Pyroptosis, and NETosis, in: Maiuri, M.C., De Stefano, D. (Eds.), Autophagy Networks in Inflammation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 81–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mammalian Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Oceans May Become Too Acidic For Animals To Smell Their Way Around [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. VA Information Technology: Important Initiatives Begun, Yet Serious Vulnerabilities Persist (No. GAO-01-550T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villanueva, R., 2015. Issues of performance practice: The influence of Franz Strauss upon Richard Strauss’s Horn Concerto No. 1 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006. Grants Will Aid First-Time Home Buyers. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kideys, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kideys, 2002; Taberlet and Cheddadi, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Taberlet and Cheddadi, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Maragliano et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleMammalian Biology
AbbreviationMamm. Biol.
ISSN (print)1616-5047
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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