How to format your references using the Mammal Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Mammal Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Micoli K (2005) Scientists and societies. Postdoc problems--postdoc solutions. Nature 434:1050
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang Y, Lisberger SG (2014) Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration. Nature 510:529–532
A journal article with 3 authors
Bode F, Sachs F, Franz MR (2001) Tarantula peptide inhibits atrial fibrillation. Nature 409:35–36
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Jones KE, Patel NG, Levy MA, et al (2008) Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451:990–993

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming P, Lee R (2016) Orthodontic Functional Appliances. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gill J (2016) A Girl’s Education: Schooling and the Formation of Gender, Identities and Future Visions. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Dadkhah S, Sharain K (2016) Symptoms of Atrial Fibrillation. In: Peacock WF, Clark CL (eds) Short Stay Management of Atrial Fibrillation. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 51–59

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Mammal Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Man Receives Facial Reconstruction With Help From 3D Printer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) U.S. Merchant Marine: Maritime Administration Should Assess Potential Mariner-Training Needs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chon JY (2012) Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S (2016) The Comforts of Jane. New York Times BR25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Micoli 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Micoli 2005; Yang and Lisberger 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Lisberger 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Jones et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleMammal Research
AbbreviationMamm. Res.
ISSN (print)2199-2401
ISSN (online)2199-241X
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles