How to format your references using the Frontiers in Earth Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Earth Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees, W. E. (2003). Ecological footprints: A blot on the land. Nature 421, 898.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuspa, S. H., and Epstein, E. H., Jr (2005). Cancer. An anchor for tumor cell invasion. Science 307, 1727–1728.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allard, P., Burton, M., and Muré, F. (2005). Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas. Nature 433, 407–410.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schneider, M. E., Belyantseva, I. A., Azevedo, R. B., and Kachar, B. (2002). Rapid renewal of auditory hair bundles. Nature 418, 837–838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaplan, W. (1998). Maxima and Minima with Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tse, J. K. H., and Tan, J. Y. eds. (2016). Theological Reflections on the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Dabbagh, A. (2014). “Postoperative Central Nervous System Monitoring,” in Postoperative Critical Care for Cardiac Surgical Patients, eds. A. Dabbagh, F. Esmailian, and S. F. Aranki (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 129–159.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Earth Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). One drug to rule them all: New medication could treat wide range of diseases. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000). Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges in Modernizing the Agency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tan, S. W. (2013). A pedagogical approach to selected études from Étude en douze exercices, S.136 and Études d ’exécution transcendante, S.139 by Franz Liszt.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017). The Luckiest Man on Earth. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rees, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Rees, 2003; Yuspa and Epstein, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuspa and Epstein, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Schneider et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Earth Science
AbbreviationFront. Earth Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-6463

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