How to format your references using the Frontiers in Earth Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Earth Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dominissini, D. (2014). Genomics and Proteomics. Roadmap to the epitranscriptome. Science 346, 1192.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pardo-de-Santayana, M., and Macía, M. J. (2015). Biodiversity: The benefits of traditional knowledge. Nature 518, 487–488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goddard, M. R., Godfray, H. C. J., and Burt, A. (2005). Sex increases the efficacy of natural selection in experimental yeast populations. Nature 434, 636–640.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ahn, S. J., Moon, P., Kim, T.-H., Kim, H.-W., Shin, H.-C., Kim, E. H., et al. (2018). Dirac electrons in a dodecagonal graphene quasicrystal. Science 361, 782–786.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R. G. (2004). Color. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Torre, R. ed. (2008). Time-Resolved Spectroscopy in Complex Liquids: An Experimental Perspective. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Iyer, K. M. (2013). “Osteoarthritis,” in General Principles of Orthopedics and Trauma, ed. K. M. Iyer (London: Springer), 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Earth Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Blanket Ban On Legal Highs Marks A New Low For Liberty. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Guaranteed Student Loans: Lenders’ Interest Billings Often Result in Overpayments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bujarbarua, V. (2015). Production Optimization Using an In-Situ Steam Generator in a Rejuvenated Heavy Oil Field.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Undeclared Candidate; Where Perot Exhibits A Lifetime of Memories. New York Times, 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dominissini, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dominissini, 2014; Pardo-de-Santayana and Macía, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pardo-de-Santayana and Macía, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahn et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Earth Science
AbbreviationFront. Earth Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-6463

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