How to format your references using the Frontiers in Earth Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Earth Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt, T. (2000). NASA’s new environmental satellite shows its sensitive side. Nature 404, 913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ahima, R. S., and Lazar, M. A. (2013). Physiology. The health risk of obesity--better metrics imperative. Science 341, 856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nagashima, K., Krot, A. N., and Yurimoto, H. (2004). Stardust silicates from primitive meteorites. Nature 428, 921–924.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hierro, A., Rojas, A. L., Rojas, R., Murthy, N., Effantin, G., Kajava, A. V., et al. (2007). Functional architecture of the retromer cargo-recognition complex. Nature 449, 1063–1067.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seeber, P., and Shander, A. (2012). Basics of Blood Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Schieferdecker, I., and Hartman, A. eds. (2008). Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications: 4th European Conference, ECMDA-FA 2008, Berlin, Germany, June 9-13, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Frizon de Lamotte, D., Zizi, M., Missenard, Y., Hafid, M., Azzouzi, M. E., Maury, R. C., et al. (2008). “The Atlas System,” in Continental Evolution: The Geology of Morocco: Structure, Stratigraphy, and Tectonics of the Africa-Atlantic-Mediterranean Triple Junction Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences., eds. A. Michard, O. Saddiqi, A. Chalouan, and D. F. de Lamotte (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 133–202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Earth Science.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). Parents Are Freaking Out Because They Can’t Answer A 7-Year-Old Kid’s Exam Question. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998). District of Columbia Public Schools: Availability of Funds and the Cost of FY 1997 Roof Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maloney, J. L. (2015). Analyzing Students’ Personal Characteristics to Determine Study Outcomes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011). Mets Thank Troops In a Meaningful Setting. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt, 2000; Ahima and Lazar, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ahima and Lazar, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Hierro et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Earth Science
AbbreviationFront. Earth Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-6463

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