How to format your references using the Frontiers in Earth Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Earth Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). How to succeed in business. Nature 428, 675.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding, H.-M., and Ma, Y.-Q. (2013). Controlling cellular uptake of nanoparticles with pH-sensitive polymers. Sci. Rep. 3, 2804.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, X.-M., Zeng, X., and Lingle, C. J. (2002). Multiple regulatory sites in large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Nature 418, 880–884.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sudou, H., Iguchi, S., Murata, Y., and Taniguchi, Y. (2003). Orbital motion in the radio galaxy 3C 66B: evidence for a supermassive black hole binary. Science 300, 1263–1265.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek, V. (2013). Cathodic Protection. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shen, H. T., Pei, J., Özsu, M. T., Zou, L., Lu, J., Ling, T.-W., et al. eds. (2010). Web-Age Information Management: WAIM 2010 International Workshops: IWGD 2010, XMLDM 2010, WCMT 2010, Jiuzhaigou Valley, China, July 15-17, 2010 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fadda, L., and Carlesimo, G. A. (2009). “Valutazione neuropsicologica nella malattia di Parkinson,” in Malattia di Parkinson e parkinsonismi: La prospettiva delle neuroscienze cognitive, ed. C. Caltagirone (Milano: Springer), 81–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Earth Science.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Teenager Creates New HIV Test. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). FAA Appropriation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hawkins, J. T. (2017). A Private Solution to a Public Problem: Managing Hydraulic Fracturing Risks by Enhancing Private Governance through Mandatory Insurance Requirements.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. (2017). On Infrastructure, Claims That Don’t Quite Get Off the Ground. New York Times, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Ding and Ma, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ding and Ma, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Sudou et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Earth Science
AbbreviationFront. Earth Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-6463

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