How to format your references using the Frontiers in Earth Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Earth Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Huisman, J. (2010). Comment on “Patterns of diversity in marine phytoplankton.” Science 329, 512; author reply 512.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hardy, J., and Selkoe, D. J. (2002). The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics. Science 297, 353–356.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cohen, M., Shavit, R., and Zalevsky, Z. (2014). Observing optical plasmons on a single nanometer scale. Sci. Rep. 4, 4096.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stice, E., Spoor, S., Bohon, C., and Small, D. M. (2008). Relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by TaqIA A1 allele. Science 322, 449–452.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhong, Q.-C., and Hornik, T. (2012). Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Antunes, L., and Takadama, K. eds. (2007). Multi-Agent-Based Simulation VII: International Workshop, MABS 2006, Hakodate, Japan, May 8, 2006, Revised and Invited Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Vosper, M. (2016). “Principles of CT,” in CT Colonography for Radiographers: A Guide to Performance and Image Interpretation, eds. J. H. Bortz, A. Ramlaul, and L. Munro (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 25–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Earth Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Why Do We Feel Intense Emotions In Our Chest? IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Advanced Automation System: Implications of Problems and Recent Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Espinoza, E. (2015). Understanding help-seeking behavior among at-risk Latino male high school students.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017). With Trade Deadline Near, The Mets Joke and Lose. New York Times, SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huisman, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hardy and Selkoe, 2002; Huisman, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hardy and Selkoe, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Stice et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Earth Science
AbbreviationFront. Earth Sci.
ISSN (online)2296-6463

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