How to format your references using the Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Making the Match. Nature 2004, 431, 1125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Siders, C.W.; Cavalleri, A. Materials Science. Creating Transient Crystal Structures with Light. Science 2003, 300, 591–592.
A journal article with 3 authors
Isaacs, F.J.; Blake, W.J.; Collins, J.J. Molecular Biology. Signal Processing in Single Cells. Science 2005, 307, 1886–1888.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kurs, A.; Karalis, A.; Moffatt, R.; Joannopoulos, J.D.; Fisher, P.; Soljacic, M. Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances. Science 2007, 317, 83–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, J.C.; McCormick, N.J. Risk and Safety Analysis of Nuclear Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118043462.
An edited book
The Political Economy of Regulation in Turkey; Çetin, T., Oğuz, F., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; ISBN 9781441977496.
A chapter in an edited book
Takanashi, K.; Mizukami, S. Spintronic Properties and Advanced Materials. In Optical Properties of Advanced Materials; Aoyagi, Y., Kajikawa, K., Eds.; Springer Series in Materials Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 103–124 ISBN 9783642335266.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machines.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Rare Wandering Black Hole Spotted Drifting Alone Through A Distant Galaxy (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data Is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herron, J. The Use of Evidence Based Interventions in the Classroom for Students with Disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University: Scottsdale, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. McCartney Sues to Get Back His Songs. New York Times 2017, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachines
ISSN (online)2075-1702

Other styles