How to format your references using the Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen, J.F. Botany. State transitions--a question of balance. Science 2003, 299, 1530–1532.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, M.C.S.; Schekman, R. Cell biology. BAR domains go on a bender. Science 2004, 303, 479–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, C.; Xuong, N.-H.; Taylor, S.S. Crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic and regulatory (RIalpha) subunits of PKA. Science 2005, 307, 690–696.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tyrrell, L.P.; Moore, B.A.; Loftis, C.; Fernández-Juricic, E. Looking above the prairie: localized and upward acute vision in a native grassland bird. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 3231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Niemi, V.; Nyberg, K. Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Security; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2006; ISBN 9780470091586.
An edited book
Cueto, E. Proper Generalized Decompositions: An Introduction to Computer Implementation with Matlab; González, D., Alfaro, I., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; 1st ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319299938.
A chapter in an edited book
Nziali, E.; Fayolle, A. Early-Stage Businesses, Resource Inheritance, and Coworkers Hiring: The Moderating Role of Founder’s Human Capital. In Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, and Regional Development: Labor Networks, Knowledge Flows, and Industry Growth; Baptista, R., Leitão, J., Eds.; International Studies in Entrepreneurship; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 75–91 ISBN 9783319128702.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How Much Does Thor’s Hammer Weigh? Available online:’s-hammer-weigh/ (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made in Compliance of VA Systems, But Concerns Remain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1998;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shelby, K.R. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Down the Memory Hole. New York Times 2009, A31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachines
ISSN (online)2075-1702

Other styles