How to format your references using the Machines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greer, A. Chemistry. Enhanced: a view of unusual peroxides. Science 2003, 302, 235–236.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowan, J.J.; Sneden, C. Heavy element synthesis in the oldest stars and the early Universe. Nature 2006, 440, 1151–1156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luce, C.H.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Holden, Z.A. The missing mountain water: slower westerlies decrease orographic enhancement in the Pacific Northwest USA. Science 2013, 342, 1360–1364.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hossard, L.; Philibert, A.; Bertrand, M.; Colnenne-David, C.; Debaeke, P.; Munier-Jolain, N.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Richard, G.; Makowski, D. Effects of halving pesticide use on wheat production. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4405.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Haupt, R.L. Timed Arrays; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2015; ISBN 9781119071822.
An edited book
Smart Card Research and Advanced Applications: 11th International Conference, CARDIS 2012, Graz, Austria, November 28-30, 2012, Revised Selected Papers; Mangard, S., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; Vol. 7771; ISBN 9783642372872.
A chapter in an edited book
Du, S.; Zhang, B.; Li, Z.; Lin, D. Fault Attacks on Stream Cipher Scream. In Information Security Practice and Experience: 11th International Conference, ISPEC 2015, Beijing, China, May 5-8, 2015, Proceedings; Lopez, J., Wu, Y., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 50–64 ISBN 9783319175324.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machines.

Blog post
Evans, K. Study Finds Link Between Gluten-Free Diet And Type 2 Diabetes Risk Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Transportation Infrastructure: Progress On and Challenges to Central Artery/Tunnel Project’s Costs and Financing; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francis, T.M. The Lived Experience of Caribbean Women and Their Experiences as Senior-Level Leaders: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Settled in the City, But Still in a Hurry Every Weekend. New York Times 2010, B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleMachines
ISSN (online)2075-1702

Other styles