How to format your references using the Communications in Theoretical Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communications in Theoretical Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hayes F 2003 Toxins-antitoxins: plasmid maintenance, programmed cell death, and cell cycle arrest Science 301 1496–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunauer R and Kennedy B K 2015 Medicine. Progeria accelerates adult stem cell aging Science 348 1093–4
A journal article with 3 authors
Barkeshli M, Berg E and Kivelson S 2014 Coherent transmutation of electrons into fractionalized anyons Science 346 722–5
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Shen W, Flajolet M, Greengard P and Surmeier D J 2008 Dichotomous dopaminergic control of striatal synaptic plasticity Science 321 848–51

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Primak S L and Kontorovich V 2011 Wireless Multi-Antenna Channels (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Ahmed I and Chen Z (david) 2015 Computational Electromagnetics—Retrospective and Outlook: In Honor of Wolfgang J.R. Hoefer (Singapore: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
van Eck W and Lamers M H 2006 Animal Controlled Computer Games: Playing Pac-Man Against Real Crickets Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2006: 5th International Conference, Cambridge, UK, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed R Harper, M Rauterberg and M Combetto (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 31–6

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communications in Theoretical Physics.

Blog post
Andrew E 2013 What does space sound like? IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1978 BPA Management of ADP Systems Development Activities (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clemons B L 2010 A correlational study of the ventures for excellence interview-rating system and first year teacher evaluations Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman J 2016 Mayor Fills Key Position in City’s Effort to Combat Rise in Homelessness New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunications in Theoretical Physics
AbbreviationCommun. Theor. Phys.
ISSN (print)0253-6102
ScopePhysics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

Other styles