How to format your references using the Health Professions Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Professions Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Novembre J. Human evolution: ancient DNA steps into the language debate. Nature. 2015;522(7555):164-165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson L, Head JW Iii. An integrated model of kimberlite ascent and eruption. Nature. 2007;447(7140):53-57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knudson MD, Desjarlais MP, Dolan DH. Shock-wave exploration of the high-pressure phases of carbon. Science. 2008;322(5909):1822-1825.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li R, Yi H, Hu X, et al. Generation of diffraction-free optical beams using wrinkled membranes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitzgerald RW, Meacham BJ. Fire Performance Analysis for Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Simpson R, Zimmermann M, eds. The Economy of Green Cities: A World Compendium on the Green Urban Economy. Vol 3. Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Fugini M, Maggiolini P, Vallès RS. Public Innovative ICT Based Employment Services Success Factors. In: Spagnoletti P, ed. Organizational Change and Information Systems: Working and Living Together in New Ways. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation. Springer; 2013:41-49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Professions Education.

Blog post
Andrew E. China Successfully Completes Mission To The Moon And Back. IFLScience. Published November 2, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Weak Controls Place DC Highway Trust Fund and Other Data at Risk. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reece JK. Reservoir Facies Analysis of Middle Miocene Turbidites in Marlin, Dorado, and Nile Fields; Viosca Knoll, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson L. Long Divisions. New York Times. September 9, 2012:BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Professions Education
AbbreviationHealth Prof. Educ.
ISSN (print)2452-3011
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Nursing

Other styles