How to format your references using the Health Professions Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Health Professions Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregersen PK. Genetics. A genomic road map for complex human disease. Science. 2014;343(6175):1087-1088.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galiana I, Green C. Let the global technology race begin. Nature. 2009;462(7273):570-571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bingenheimer JB, Brennan RT, Earls FJ. Firearm violence exposure and serious violent behavior. Science. 2005;308(5726):1323-1326.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Brixner T, Damrauer NH, Niklaus P, Gerber G. Photoselective adaptive femtosecond quantum control in the liquid phase. Nature. 2001;414(6859):57-60.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morocco CC, Aguilar CM, Bershad C, Kotula AW, Hindin A. Supported Literacy for Adolescents. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2008.
An edited book
Kassim TA, ed. Water Pollution: Environmental Impact Assessment of Recycled Wastes on Surface and Ground Waters; Risk Analysis. Vol 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Colonna S, Folco G, Marangoni F. Vitamine e minerali. In: Folco G, Marangoni F, eds. I Cibi Della Salute: Le Basi Chimiche Di Una Corretta Alimentazione. Milano: Springer; 2013:75-95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Health Professions Education.

Blog post
Andrew E. Health Check: Four Reasons To Have Another Cup Of Coffee. IFLScience. Published May 26, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Needs: An Evaluation of DOT’s Process for Assessing the Nation’s Highway Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Churney K. Drawing and multimodality communication training as an effective treatment option for individuals with nonfluent aphasia. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M, Walsh MW. Interest Adds Up to a $1.3 Billion Bill for States. New York Times. January 15, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleHealth Professions Education
AbbreviationHealth Prof. Educ.
ISSN (print)2452-3011
ScopeGeneral Medicine
General Nursing

Other styles