How to format your references using the Machine Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V (2005) Baby blues. Nature 433:780–781
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu P, Werb Z (2008) Patterning mechanisms of branched organs. Science 322:1506–1509
A journal article with 3 authors
Afraz S-R, Kiani R, Esteky H (2006) Microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex influences face categorization. Nature 442:692–695
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Brack AS, Conboy MJ, Roy S, et al (2007) Increased Wnt signaling during aging alters muscle stem cell fate and increases fibrosis. Science 317:807–810

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berg MC (2000) The Fourier-Analytic Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Mahmoudi M (ed) (2016) Allergy and Asthma: Practical Diagnosis and Management, 2nd ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Komatsu T, Iwaoka T, Nambu M (2006) Leaving a Message with the PaPeRo Robot: The Effect of Interaction Experience with Real or Virtual PaPeRo on Impression Evaluation. In: Harper R, Rauterberg M, Combetto M (eds) Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2006: 5th International Conference, Cambridge, UK, September 20-22, 2006. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 37–42

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Translation.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Amazing Photographs Of Iceland’s Volcanic Eruption from Space. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/view-icelands-volcanic-eruption-space-currently-being-written-ls/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Defaulted Student Loans: Private Lender Collection Efforts Often Inadequate. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Skiold-Hanlin S (2015) Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldman J (2017) Thoreau’s Distressing Canoe Trip. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2005; Lu and Werb 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Werb 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Brack et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Translation
AbbreviationMach. Transl.
ISSN (print)0922-6567
ISSN (online)1573-0573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Software
Linguistics and Language

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