How to format your references using the Machine Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Metzger RA (2000) The stars my incarnation. Nature 408:35
A journal article with 2 authors
Strain AJ, Neuberger JM (2002) A bioartificial liver--state of the art. Science 295:1005–1009
A journal article with 3 authors
Hess KL, Corda CJ, Lanese KM (2011) SPORE series winner. Science Buddies: advancing informal science education. Science 332:550–551
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Seo J-S, Jeon J-H, Hwang YH, et al (2013) Solution-processed flexible fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors fabricated on plastic film at low temperature. Sci Rep 3:2085

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saksena FB (2008) Color Atlas of Local and Systemic Signs of Cardiovascular Disease. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Chen R (ed) (2011) Intelligent Computing and Information Science: International Conference, ICICIS 2011, Chongqing, China, January 8-9, 2011. Proceedings, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
DiMauro LF, Roedig CA (2014) Strong-Field Atomic Physics in the X-ray Regime. In: Yamanouchi K, Paulus GG, Mathur D (eds) Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science: Volume X. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Translation.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Prisoners from 1962 Alcatraz Escape Could Have Survived. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Highlights of a Forum: Financial Literacy: The Role of the Workplace. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alla B (2017) Wellbore Stability Analysis of Sanish Field using 3-D Finite Element Model: Bakken Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) An Indomitable Woman Goes West. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Metzger 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Metzger 2000; Strain and Neuberger 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Strain and Neuberger 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Seo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Translation
AbbreviationMach. Transl.
ISSN (print)0922-6567
ISSN (online)1573-0573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Linguistics and Language

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