How to format your references using the Machine Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schluter D (2009) Evidence for ecological speciation and its alternative. Science 323:737–741
A journal article with 2 authors
Morris RG, Barthelemy M (2013) Interdependent networks: the fragility of control. Sci Rep 3:2764
A journal article with 3 authors
Damasceno PF, Engel M, Glotzer SC (2012) Predictive self-assembly of polyhedra into complex structures. Science 337:453–457
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Salih A, Larkum A, Cox G, et al (2000) Fluorescent pigments in corals are photoprotective. Nature 408:850–853

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin T (2011) Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Eickhoff J (ed) (2016) The FLP Microsatellite Platform: Flight Operations Manual. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Pinsent A (2013) Aquinas and the Second Person in the Formation of Virtues. In: Mooney TB, Nowacki M (eds) Aquinas, Education and the East. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 47–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Translation.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2016) Study Suggests Badgers Do Not Spread TB To Cattle Directly. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 1. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson MB (2009) Constructions of childhood found in award -winning children’s literature. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) The Engineered Shoe. New York Times E5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schluter 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Schluter 2009; Morris and Barthelemy 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morris and Barthelemy 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Salih et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Translation
AbbreviationMach. Transl.
ISSN (print)0922-6567
ISSN (online)1573-0573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Linguistics and Language

Other styles