How to format your references using the Machine Translation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Machine Translation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Northcutt RG (2011) Paleontology. Evolving large and complex brains. Science 332:926–927
A journal article with 2 authors
Saltiel AR, Kahn CR (2001) Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature 414:799–806
A journal article with 3 authors
Polat EO, Balcı O, Kocabas C (2014) Graphene based flexible electrochromic devices. Sci Rep 4:6484
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang J, Wang L, Li X, Mao C (2013) Virus activated artificial ECM induces the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells without osteogenic supplements. Sci Rep 3:1242

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Conrick C IV, Hanson S (2013) Vertical Option Spreads. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Foxley A, Stallings B (eds) (2016) Innovation and Inclusion in Latin America: Strategies to Avoid the Middle Income Trap. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Gorgulho AMSBS, Neves RFMF, Horta NCG (2013) System Validation. In: Neves RFMF, Horta NCG (eds) Intelligent Financial Portfolio Composition based on Evolutionary Computation Strategies. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 57–68

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Machine Translation.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Scientists Have Discovered “Clocks” Inside Your Cells That Could Determine When You Get Cancer. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Disadvantaged Students: School Districts Have Used Title I Funds Primarily to Support Instruction. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rich DW (2009) Examining the relationship of values-based management in performance evaluations. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, Craig S, Kaplan T (2015) Inquiry Is Said to Aim at Chief of State Senate. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Northcutt 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Saltiel and Kahn 2001; Northcutt 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Saltiel and Kahn 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleMachine Translation
AbbreviationMach. Transl.
ISSN (print)0922-6567
ISSN (online)1573-0573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Linguistics and Language

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