How to format your references using the LWT - Food Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT - Food Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moraes, M. (2011). Perspective: Lessons from Brazil. Nature, 474(7352), S25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tegmark, M., & Bostrom, N. (2005). Astrophysics: is a doomsday catastrophe likely? Nature, 438(7069), 754.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wild, G., Gardner, A., & West, S. A. (2009). Adaptation and the evolution of parasite virulence in a connected world. Nature, 459(7249), 983–986.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hong, W., Liang, F., Schaak, D., Loncar, M., & Quan, Q. (2014). Nanoscale label-free bioprobes to detect intracellular proteins in single living cells. Scientific Reports, 4, 6179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Faticoni, T. G. (2006). The Mathematics of Infinity. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Roederer, J. G. (2014). Dynamics of Magnetically Trapped Particles: Foundations of the Physics of Radiation Belts and Space Plasmas. (H. Zhang, Ed.) (2nd ed. 2014, Vol. 403). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Z., & Li, X. (2016). Quantification of Spike-LFP Synchronization. In X. Li (Ed.), Signal Processing in Neuroscience (pp. 57–75). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT - Food Science and Technology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2015, October 29). Mysterious Substances Observed In Europa’s Cracks. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Reports Issued in October 1987 (No. 134487). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kluck, M. C. (2017). You are What You Read: Participation and Emancipation Problematized in Habacuc’s “Exposición #1” (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, March 3). The Bunker, an Orphan, Finds a Temporary Home. New York Times, p. 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moraes, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Moraes, 2011; Tegmark & Bostrom, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tegmark & Bostrom, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Wild, Gardner, & West, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hong, Liang, Schaak, Loncar, & Quan, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT - Food Science and Technology
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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