How to format your references using the LWT - Food Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT - Food Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2004). Will creativity thrive in an island paradise? Nature, 429(6988), 220–221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kirwan, M. L., & Mudd, S. M. (2012). Response of salt-marsh carbon accumulation to climate change. Nature, 489(7417), 550–553.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, X., Rickert, M., & Garcia, K. C. (2005). Structure of the quaternary complex of interleukin-2 with its alpha, beta, and gammac receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5751), 1159–1163.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, Z., Ma, J., Miyoshi, C., Li, Y., Sato, M., Ogawa, Y., Lou, T., Ma, C., Gao, X., Lee, C., Fujiyama, T., Yang, X., Zhou, S., Hotta-Hirashima, N., Klewe-Nebenius, D., Ikkyu, A., Kakizaki, M., Kanno, S., Cao, L., … Liu, Q. (2018). Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the molecular substrates of sleep need. Nature, 558(7710), 435–439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rangarao, K. V., & Mallik, R. K. (2006). Digital Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Thomas, E. G., & Rao, S. R. (Eds.). (2015). Proceedings of the 1988 International Conference of Services Marketing. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Skadiņa, I., Veisbergs, A., Vasiļjevs, A., Gornostaja, T., Keiša, I., & Rudzīte, A. (2012). Valodu Tehnoloģiju Atbalsts Latviešu Valodai. In G. Rehm & H. Uszkoreit (Eds.), The Latvian Language in the Digital Age (pp. 19–38). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT - Food Science and Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, November 3). Researchers Use Robo-Chicks To Study Penguins. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Women and Minority Aerospace Industry Profile, 1979-1986 (T-HRD-90-4). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monk, K. J. (2014). Effects of distractors and force feedback on an aimed movement task in a CDTI environment [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Al-Batati, S., & Hubbard, B. (2016, November 15). Bank Defends Dealing With Al Qaeda When It Called the Shots. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2004; Kirwan & Mudd, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kirwan & Mudd, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Wang et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT - Food Science and Technology
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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