How to format your references using the LWT - Food Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT - Food Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raichle, M. E. (2006). Neuroscience. The brain’s dark energy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5803), 1249–1250.
A journal article with 2 authors
Altshuler, J. S., & Altshuler, D. (2004). Organizational challenges in clinical genomic research. Nature, 429(6990), 478–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, M. J., Wills, M. A., & Hitchin, R. (2000). Quality of the fossil record through time. Nature, 403(6769), 534–537.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zürch, M., Rothhardt, J., Hädrich, S., Demmler, S., Krebs, M., Limpert, J., Tünnermann, A., Guggenmos, A., Kleineberg, U., & Spielmann, C. (2014). Real-time and sub-wavelength ultrafast coherent diffraction imaging in the extreme ultraviolet. Scientific Reports, 4, 7356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Attoh-Okine, N. O. (2017). Big Data and Differential Privacy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yamaguchi, Y. (Ed.). (2013). Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (III): Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2011. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sotelo, J. C., & Seminario, J. M. (2010). Some Recent Studies on the Local Reactivity of O2 on Pt3 Nanoislands Supported on Mono- and Bi-Metallic Backgrounds. In P. B. Balbuena & V. R. Subramanian (Eds.), Theory and Experiment in Electrocatalysis (pp. 203–242). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT - Food Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 22). Pod Of Orcas Caught With An Enormous Eyeball. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Degradable Plastics: Standards, Research and Development (T-RCED-88-64). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuite, J. (2006). Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember, S. (2017, October 2). The Empire Of Glamour Loses a King. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raichle, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Altshuler & Altshuler, 2004; Raichle, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Altshuler & Altshuler, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Benton et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zürch et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT - Food Science and Technology
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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