How to format your references using the LWT - Food Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT - Food Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bromm, V. (2010). Chemistry. To cool or not to cool. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5987), 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka, M., & Sackmann, E. (2005). Polymer-supported membranes as models of the cell surface. Nature, 437(7059), 656–663.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barber, V. A., Juday, G. P., & Finney, B. P. (2000). Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature, 405(6787), 668–673.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Cortes Ledesma, F., El Khamisy, S. F., Zuma, M. C., Osborn, K., & Caldecott, K. W. (2009). A human 5’-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase that repairs topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage. Nature, 461(7264), 674–678.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aubry, J.-F., & Brînzei, N. (2015). Systems Dependability Assessment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kawai, M., & Lee, J.-W. (Eds.). (2015). Rebalancing for Sustainable Growth: Asia’s Postcrisis Challenge. Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Sazeides, Y., Moustakas, A., Constantinides, K., & Kleanthous, M. (2011). Improving Branch Prediction by Considering Affectors and Affectees Correlations. In P. Stenström (Ed.), Transactions on High-Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers III (pp. 69–88). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT - Food Science and Technology.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, November 14). Texting While Walking Does Very Silly Things To Your Gait. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1971). Use of Construction Authority by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (B-165118). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jekanowski, E. C. (2017). District Leadership and Systemic Inclusion: A Case Study of One Inclusive and Effective School District [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, August 19). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bromm, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bromm, 2010; Tanaka & Sackmann, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tanaka & Sackmann, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Barber et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Cortes Ledesma et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT - Food Science and Technology
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

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