How to format your references using the LWT - Food Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for LWT - Food Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Enserink, M. (2000). DUTCH SCIENCE: On a Slippery Slope to Mediocrity? Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5487), 2033.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill, J. S., & Reddy, A. B. (2011). Circadian clocks in human red blood cells. Nature, 469(7331), 498–503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marshall, C. B., Fletcher, G. L., & Davies, P. L. (2004). Hyperactive antifreeze protein in a fish. Nature, 429(6988), 153.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Choi, D. H., Wang, Q., Azuma, Y., Majima, Y., Warner, J. H., Miyata, Y., Shinohara, H., & Kitaura, R. (2013). Fabrication and characterization of fully flattened carbon nanotubes: a new graphene nanoribbon analogue. Scientific Reports, 3, 1617.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ash, M. K. (2008). The Mary Kay Way. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bruel, J.-M. (Ed.). (2006). Satellite Events at the MoDELS 2005 Conference: MoDELS 2005 International Workshops Doctoral Symposium, Educators Symposium Montego Bay, Jamaica, October 2-7, 2005 Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3844). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Issa, T., & Isaias, P. (2015). Physical, Cognitive and Affective Engineering. In P. Isaias (Ed.), Sustainable Design: HCI, Usability and Environmental Concerns (pp. 59–69). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for LWT - Food Science and Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, October 3). Your Doctor’s Politics May Affect The Healthcare You Get. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Telecommunications: Data Gathering Weaknesses In FCC’s Survey Of Information on Factors Underlying Cable Rate Changes (GAO-03-742T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lytle, S. C. (2010). Giving voice to the past: New editions of select repertoire of the 26th Regiment Band, North Carolina troops, C.S.A [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, I. by S. (2014, December 19). ‘You Have to Keep Putting Yourself Out There.’ New York Times, MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Enserink, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Enserink, 2000; O’Neill & Reddy, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Neill & Reddy, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Marshall et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Choi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLWT - Food Science and Technology
AbbreviationLebenson. Wiss. Technol.
ISSN (print)0023-6438
ScopeFood Science

Other styles