How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mejia R. Taking the industry road. Nature. 2008 Jun 19;453(7198):1138–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lucht M, Rosskopf D. Comment on “Genetically determined differences in learning from errors.” Science. 2008 Jul 11;321(5886):200; author reply 200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oberholzer S, Sukhorukov EV, Schönenberger C. Crossover between classical and quantum shot noise in chaotic cavities. Nature. 2002 Feb 14;415(6873):765–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jové M, Naudí A, Aledo JC, Cabré R, Ayala V, Portero-Otin M, et al. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 28;3:3346.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aronson DR. Evidence-Based Technical Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Jiang X, Ma MY, Chen CW, editors. Mobile Multimedia Processing: Fundamentals, Methods, and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. X, 287 p. 141 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5960).
A chapter in an edited book
Onay-Besikci A. Substrate Metabolism in the Diabetic Heart. In: Turan B, Dhalla NS, editors. Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 65–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Some Of The Universe’s Earliest Black Holes May Have Been Found [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Entitlement to the Transportation of Dependents. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Mar. Report No.: B-197463.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calhoun GF. Limit theory for overfit models [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Landler M. Trump Expected to Back NATO Mutual Aid Pledge. New York Times. 2017 May 24;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1754-9477
ISSN (online)1754-9485
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles