How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gong JP. Materials science. Materials both tough and soft. Science. 2014 Apr 11;344(6180):161–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Uversky VN, Dunker AK. Biochemistry. Controlled chaos. Science. 2008 Nov 28;322(5906):1340–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye Q, Krug RM, Tao YJ. The mechanism by which influenza A virus nucleoprotein forms oligomers and binds RNA. Nature. 2006 Dec 21;444(7122):1078–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Haji-Akbari A, Engel M, Keys AS, Zheng X, Petschek RG, Palffy-Muhoray P, et al. Disordered, quasicrystalline and crystalline phases of densely packed tetrahedra. Nature. 2009 Dec 10;462(7274):773–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vilensky JA, Robertson WM, Suárez-Quian CA. The Clinical Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Kee Y, Lee SJ, Phillips R, editors. Social Factors and Community Well-Being. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XV, 99 p. 9 illus. (SpringerBriefs in Well-Being and Quality of Life Research).
A chapter in an edited book
Haghpanah Y, Ketter W, desJardins M, van Dalen J. A Decision Framework for Broker Selection in Smart Grids. In: David E, Kiekintveld C, Robu V, Shehory O, Stein S, editors. Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce Designing Trading Strategies and Mechanisms for Electronic Markets: AMEC and TADA 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4th, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 61–74. (van der Aalst W, Mylopoulos J, Rosemann M, Shaw MJ, Szyperski C, editors. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Want To Put A Blimp In Venus’s Atmosphere [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for Additional Internal Audit Coverage in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977 Dec. Report No.: FGMSD-78-12.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Augspurger BA. Teacher Perceptions of Effective School Leadership Using Twenty-first Century Skills and Knowledge [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Fordham’s Big 3 Make Trip North Worthwhile. New York Times. 2002 Oct 26;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1754-9477
ISSN (online)1754-9485
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles