How to format your references using the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Dulac, Brain function and chromatin plasticity, Nature. 465 (2010) 728–735.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.F. Cowman, C.J. Tonkin, Microbiology. A tail of division, Science. 331 (2011) 409–410.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.K. Singh, A. Yamashita, E. Gouaux, Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters, Nature. 448 (2007) 952–956.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Long, T. Shi, H. Hu, S. Jiang, S. Xi, Z. Tang, Growth of hierarchal mesoporous NiO nanosheets on carbon cloth as binder-free anodes for high-performance flexible lithium-ion batteries, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7413.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
I. Ushakov, Probabilistic Reliability Models, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
H.B. Zaman, P. Robinson, P. Olivier, T.K. Shih, S. Velastin, eds., Advances in Visual Informatics: Third International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2013, Selangor, Malaysia, November 13-15, 2013. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Huneman, Selection, in: T. Heams, P. Huneman, G. Lecointre, M. Silberstein (Eds.), Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 37–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra.

Blog post
J. Fang, Seabirds Feast On Seafood Buffet Thanks To Jellyfish Blooms, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Army Accounting Adjustments--Aviation Systems Command, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.I. Mbwiri, Remedial Math Instruction Intervention: Efficacy of Constructivist Practices on Alternative Students with Disabilities Mathematics Achievement, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Clarke, Resilient Golf Turf Faces Test at Olympics, New York Times. (2016) SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra
AbbreviationInt. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. Extra
ISSN (print)1871-4048
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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