How to format your references using the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Alberts, DNA replication and recombination, Nature. 421 (2003) 431–435.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Demaurex, D. Poburko, Cell biology. A revolving door for calcium, Science. 326 (2009) 57–58.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Charrier, N. Mathevon, P. Jouventin, Mother’s voice recognition by seal pups, Nature. 412 (2001) 873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L.M. Walker, M. Huber, K.J. Doores, E. Falkowska, R. Pejchal, J.-P. Julien, S.-K. Wang, A. Ramos, P.-Y. Chan-Hui, M. Moyle, J.L. Mitcham, P.W. Hammond, O.A. Olsen, P. Phung, S. Fling, C.-H. Wong, S. Phogat, T. Wrin, M.D. Simek, Protocol G Principal Investigators, W.C. Koff, I.A. Wilson, D.R. Burton, P. Poignard, Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies, Nature. 477 (2011) 466–470.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.C. Bauldry, Introduction to Real Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2009.
An edited book
L. Ambrosio, Introduction to Measure Theory and Integration, Edizioni della Normale, Pisa, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
A.A. Emadzadeh, J.L. Speyer, Pulse Delay Estimation Using Epoch Folding, in: J.L. Speyer (Ed.), Navigation in Space by X-Ray Pulsars, Springer, New York, NY, 2011: pp. 49–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Highest Carbon Dioxide Levels In 800,000 Years, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, VA Education Benefits: VA Needs to Improve Program Management and Provide More Timely Information to Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.M. Morissette, Elder friendliness and social participation of older adults living within age-segregated retirement communities, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Smale, S. Erlanger, Wary of Trump, Merkel Doubts U.S. Is Solid Ally, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra
AbbreviationInt. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. Extra
ISSN (print)1871-4048
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles