How to format your references using the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.F. Service, American Chemical Society meeting. Science invades the Magic Kingdom, Science. 296 (2002) 462–463.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Lyra, M. Kuchner, Formation of sharp eccentric rings in debris disks with gas but without planets, Nature. 499 (2013) 184–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Nakamura, Y. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, Low-temperature excess heat capacity in fresnoite glass and crystal, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6523.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Nagai, K. Dubrana, M. Tsai-Pflugfelder, M.B. Davidson, T.M. Roberts, G.W. Brown, E. Varela, F. Hediger, S.M. Gasser, N.J. Krogan, Functional targeting of DNA damage to a nuclear pore-associated SUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase, Science. 322 (2008) 597–602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Stoican, S. Olaru, Set-theoretic Fault-tolerant Control in Multisensor Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
Q. Yang, J.-M. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Yao, eds., Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J.R. Benson, Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients, in: M. Toi, E. Winer, J. Benson, S. Klimberg (Eds.), Personalized Treatment of Breast Cancer, Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2016: pp. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra.

Blog post
E. Andrew, California’s Majestic Trees Are Declining — A Harbinger Of Future Forests, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Best Practices Can Improve Performance and Produce Results, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.L. Karriem, The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Mueller, V. Wang, S. Piccoli, 3 Men From Shelter Held in Sexual Assault on Woman Leaving Church, New York Times. (2017) A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra
AbbreviationInt. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. Extra
ISSN (print)1871-4048
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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