How to format your references using the International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Powell, Inspiration from architecture: building a better scientific rapport, Nature. 424 (2003) 858–859.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. McMichael, P. Klenerman, HIV/AIDS. HLA leaves its footprints on HIV, Science. 296 (2002) 1410–1411.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.M. Stroud, L.R. Nittler, C.M.O. Alexander, Polymorphism in presolar Al2O3 grains from asymptotic giant branch stars, Science. 305 (2004) 1455–1457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.C. Zappacosta, A.C. Ochogavía, J.M. Rodrigo, J.R. Romero, M.S. Meier, I. Garbus, S.C. Pessino, V.C. Echenique, Increased apomixis expression concurrent with genetic and epigenetic variation in a newly synthesized Eragrostis curvula polyploid, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Yavaş, Applied English Phonology, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
R.G. Steele, T.D. Elkin, M.C. Roberts, eds., Handbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and Adolescents: Bridging Science and Practice, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Pradel, Winged Immortals and Heavenly Beings Across the East Asian Skies, in: N. Gutschow, K. Weiler (Eds.), Spirits in Transcultural Skies: Auspicious and Protective Spirits in Artefacts and Architecture Between East and West, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 99–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Why Sex Robots Are Ancient History, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Trans-Alaska Pipeline: Actions to Improve Safety Are Under Way, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.D. Pulido, Self-Reported Emotional State as a Measure of Interpersonal Vulnerability, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Leland, Loft Life: Music, Stretching and Leftovers, New York Times. (2016) MB2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra
AbbreviationInt. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. Extra
ISSN (print)1871-4048
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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