How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caruana, C. (2005). An eastern promise of regeneration. Nature 435, 998–999.
A journal article with 2 authors
Akeda, Y., and Galán, J. E. (2005). Chaperone release and unfolding of substrates in type III secretion. Nature 437, 911–915.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baier, D. B., Gatesy, S. M., and Jenkins, F. A. (2007). A critical ligamentous mechanism in the evolution of avian flight. Nature 445, 307–310.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hipkin, C. R., Simpson, D. J., Wainwright, S. J., and Salem, M. A. (2004). Nitrification by plants that also fix nitrogen. Nature 430, 98–101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, S. (2005). Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Feldman, E. L. (2014). Atlas of Neuromuscular Diseases: A Practical Guideline. 2nd ed. 2014. , eds. W. Grisold, J. W. Russell, and W. N. Löscher Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Obermaisser, R. (2008). “Formal Specification of Gateways in Integrated Architectures,” in Software Technologies for Embedded and Ubiquitous Systems: 6th IFIP WG 10.2 International Workshop, SEUS 2008, Anacarpi, Capri Island, Italy, October 1-3, 2008 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. U. Brinkschulte, T. Givargis, and S. Russo (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 34–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). A Brief History Of Unexpected Things Spiders Have Been Caught Eating. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Pedestrians and Cyclists: Cities, States, and DOT Are Implementing Actions to Improve Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betts, K. (2017). Ready, Steady, Putt! An Exhibition About the History of Miniature Golf in America.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2016). Haunting Lamentation for an Evanescent Now. New York Times, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caruana, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Akeda and Galán, 2005; Caruana, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Akeda and Galán, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Hipkin et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Tolerance
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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