How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perz, S. G. (2014). Sustainable development: The promise and perils of roads. Nature 513, 178–179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nandagopal, N., and Elowitz, M. B. (2011). Synthetic biology: integrated gene circuits. Science 333, 1244–1248.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vogel, E. K., McCollough, A. W., and Machizawa, M. G. (2005). Neural measures reveal individual differences in controlling access to working memory. Nature 438, 500–503.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee, S.-W., Han, S.-W., Sririyanum, M., Park, C.-J., Seo, Y.-S., and Ronald, P. C. (2009). A type I-secreted, sulfated peptide triggers XA21-mediated innate immunity. Science 326, 850–853.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Webb, R. C. (2005). Tele-Visionaries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Prassler, E., Zöllner, M., Bischoff, R., Burgard, W., Haschke, R., Hägele, M., et al. eds. (2012). Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments: Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lorenzini, J., and Giugni, M. (2016). “Long-Term Unemployed Youth in Switzerland: Coping with Exclusion from the Labor Market in a Country with Low Unemployment,” in Experiencing Long-Term Unemployment in Europe: Youth on the Edge, eds. C. Lahusen and M. Giugni (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 73–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). Air Pollution Expert: Why Christmas May Be The Most Toxic Day Of The Year. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Changes Needed in the Tax Laws Governing the Exclusion for Scholarships and Fellowships and the Deduction of Job-Related Educational Expenses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wulfsberg, J. C. (2015). Singing Turkish, performing Turkishness: Message and audience in the song competition of the International Turkish Olympiad.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schulman, M. (2017). Julie Klausner Meets a Cult-Movie Legend. New York Times, ST6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perz, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nandagopal and Elowitz, 2011; Perz, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nandagopal and Elowitz, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Tolerance
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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