How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, T. (2008). Physiology. Burn fat, live longer. Science 322, 865–866.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmitt, J. H., and Wichmann, R. (2001). Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star. Nature 412, 508–510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heinsohn, R., Legge, S., and Endler, J. A. (2005). Extreme reversed sexual dichromatism in a bird without sex role reversal. Science 309, 617–619.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alt, A., Lammens, K., Chiocchini, C., Lammens, A., Pieck, J. C., Kuch, D., et al. (2007). Bypass of DNA lesions generated during anticancer treatment with cisplatin by DNA polymerase eta. Science 318, 967–970.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Omura, G., and Benton, B. C. (2017). Mastering AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stolzenburg, J.-U., Gettman, M. T., and Liatsikos, E. N. eds. (2007). Endoscopic Extraperitoneal Radical Prostatectomy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Holdaway, S. (2015). “Surface Survey: Method and Strategies,” in Field Archaeology from Around the World: Ideas and Approaches SpringerBriefs in Archaeology., eds. M. Carver, B. Gaydarska, and S. Montón-Subías (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Supercooled Helium Does Things That Don’t Seem Possible. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973). Difficulties of the Neighborhood Youth Corps In-School Program and Its Management Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Long, J. J. (2012). Comparison of health-promoting lifestyles in adult patients with and without primary care provider continuity.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004). World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Plan First Joint Military Exercise. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xie, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Schmitt and Wichmann, 2001; Xie, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmitt and Wichmann, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Alt et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Tolerance
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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