How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mather, J. C. (2007). HISTORY OF SCIENCE: Science and Sputnik. Science 318, 52–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holme, R., and de Viron, O. (2013). Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day. Nature 499, 202–204.
A journal article with 3 authors
Douglas, S. M., Bachelet, I., and Church, G. M. (2012). A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads. Science 335, 831–834.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kishikawa, T., Otsuka, M., Yoshikawa, T., Ohno, M., Takata, A., Shibata, C., et al. (2013). Regulation of the expression of the liver cancer susceptibility gene MICA by microRNAs. Sci. Rep. 3, 2739.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Monino, J.-L., and Sedkaoui, S. (2016). Big Data, Open Data and Data Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hendricks, V. F., Jørgensen, K. F., Lützen, J., and Pedersen, S. A. eds. (2006). Interactions: Mathematics, Physics and Philosophy, 1860–1930. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bonfiglio, S. (2012). “Fostering a Continuum of Care,” in Impact Analysis of Solutions for Chronic Disease Prevention and Management: 10th International Conference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, ICOST 2012, Artiminio, Italy, June 12-15, 2012. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. M. Donnelly, C. Paggetti, C. Nugent, and M. Mokhtari (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 35–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). IBM Watson set to battle brain cancers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Volkmer, J. E. (2010). The Cretaceous-Tertiary tectonic evolution of the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). Bustling Booth Becomes Waypoint In Ashe’s Legacy. New York Times, SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mather, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Holme and de Viron, 2013; Mather, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holme and de Viron, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kishikawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Tolerance
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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