How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Munk, W. (2003). Ocean science. Ocean freshening, sea level rising. Science 300, 2041–2043.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benkovic, S. J., and Hammes-Schiffer, S. (2003). A perspective on enzyme catalysis. Science 301, 1196–1202.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, K., Dickinson, R. E., and Liang, S. (2009). Clear sky visibility has decreased over land globally from 1973 to 2007. Science 323, 1468–1470.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim, S. O., Solak, H. H., Stoykovich, M. P., Ferrier, N. J., De Pablo, J. J., and Nealey, P. F. (2003). Epitaxial self-assembly of block copolymers on lithographically defined nanopatterned substrates. Nature 424, 411–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wartenberg, T. E. (2013). A Sneetch Is a Sneetch and Other Philosophical Discoveries. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Kramer, A., Kibaroglu, A., and Scheumann, W. eds. (2011). Turkey’s Water Policy: National Frameworks and International Cooperation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thompson, K. (2016). “Disruptive Innovators?,” in The Collegiate Way: University Education in a Collegiate Context, eds. H. M. Evans and T. P. Burt (Rotterdam: SensePublishers), 57–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunological Tolerance.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016). Ketamine Metabolite Reduces Depression Without Any “Druggy” Side-Effects. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Tax Policy: Uncertain Impact of Repealing the Deferral for Reinvested Shipping Income. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter, C. A. (2008). The Panhellenic Project: Assessing learning engagement using Web 2.0 technologies.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M. J. (2017). Lattice to Seek Trump’s Ear for Chinese-Backed Deal. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Munk, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Benkovic and Hammes-Schiffer, 2003; Munk, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benkovic and Hammes-Schiffer, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunological Tolerance
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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