How to format your references using the Lubricants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lubricants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lingham-Soliar, T. Comment on “A Jurassic Ornithischian Dinosaur from Siberia with Both Feathers and Scales.” Science 2014, 346, 434.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J. Comment on “Changes in Climatic Water Balance Drive Downhill Shifts in Plant Species’ Optimum Elevations.” Science 2011, 334, 177; author reply 177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brooke, J.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Aeppli, G. Tunable Quantum Tunnelling of Magnetic Domain Walls. Nature 2001, 413, 610–613.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hughes, I.D.; Däne, M.; Ernst, A.; Hergert, W.; Lüders, M.; Poulter, J.; Staunton, J.B.; Svane, A.; Szotek, Z.; Temmerman, W.M. Lanthanide Contraction and Magnetism in the Heavy Rare Earth Elements. Nature 2007, 446, 650–653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jamison, D.C. Perl Programming for Biologists; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471722748.
An edited book
Switching and Learning in Feedback Systems: European Summer School on Multi-Agent Control, Maynooth, Ireland, September 8-10, 2003, Revised Lectures and Selected Papers; Murray-Smith, R., Shorten, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005; Vol. 3355; ISBN 9783540244578.
A chapter in an edited book
Castegren, E.; Östlund, J.; Wrigstad, T. Refined Ownership: In Formal Methods for Multicore Programming: 15th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication, and Software Systems, SFM 2015, Bertinoro, Italy, June 15-19, 2015, Advanced Lectures; Bernardo, M., Johnsen, E.B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 179–210 ISBN 9783319189406.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lubricants.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Net-Casting Spider Plunges Web On Top Of Prey Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Laboratories: Better Performance Reporting Could Aid Oversight of Laboratory-Directed R&D Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francis, T.M. The Lived Experience of Caribbean Women and Their Experiences as Senior-Level Leaders: A Phenomenological Study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University: Minneapolis, MN, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. Since 1956, a Sensitive Guy. New York Times 2012, ST2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLubricants
ISSN (online)2075-4442

Other styles