How to format your references using the Lubricants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lubricants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kentsis, A. Correspondence Patterns: Mechanisms and Models of Human Dynamics. Nature 2006, 441, E5; discussion E5-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Showalter, M.R.; Hamilton, D.P. Resonant Interactions and Chaotic Rotation of Pluto’s Small Moons. Nature 2015, 522, 45–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conrad, C.P.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T.H. Stability of Active Mantle Upwelling Revealed by Net Characteristics of Plate Tectonics. Nature 2013, 498, 479–482.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dadosh, T.; Gordin, Y.; Krahne, R.; Khivrich, I.; Mahalu, D.; Frydman, V.; Sperling, J.; Yacoby, A.; Bar-Joseph, I. Measurement of the Conductance of Single Conjugated Molecules. Nature 2005, 436, 677–680.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myatt, G.J.; Johnson, W.P. Making Sense of Data III; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118121610.
An edited book
Hackney, P. Infinity Properads and Infinity Wheeled Properads; Robertson, M., Yau, D., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Mathematics; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 2147; ISBN 9783319205465.
A chapter in an edited book
Heilmann, C.; Francis, N. Spoiled for Choice—What the Web Offers You. In Web Development Solutions: Ajax, APIs, Libraries, and Hosted Services Made Easy; Francis, M.N., Ed.; Apress: Berkeley, CA, 2007; pp. 75–92 ISBN 9781590598061.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lubricants.

Blog post
Andrews, R. Microbes And The Mantle Helped Earth’s Early Atmosphere Get Its Oxygen Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National School Lunch Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson, S.L. “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Prosek, J. A Botanist in Lapland. New York Times 2017, TR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLubricants
ISSN (online)2075-4442

Other styles