How to format your references using the Lubricants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lubricants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vernos, I. Research Management: Quotas Are Questionable. Nature 2013, 495, 39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergmann, O.; Frisén, J. Neuroscience. Why Adults Need New Brain Cells. Science 2013, 340, 695–696.
A journal article with 3 authors
Holmberg, V.C.; Panthani, M.G.; Korgel, B.A. Phase Transitions, Melting Dynamics, and Solid-State Diffusion in a Nano Test Tube. Science 2009, 326, 405–407.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Valle, M.; Gillet, R.; Kaur, S.; Henne, A.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Frank, J. Visualizing TmRNA Entry into a Stalled Ribosome. Science 2003, 300, 127–130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kharmanda, G.; El Hami, A. Reliability in Biomechanics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119370840.
An edited book
Cappé, O. Inference in Hidden Markov Models; Moulines, E., Rydén, T., Eds.; Springer Series in Statistics; Springer: New York, NY, 2005; ISBN 9780387402642.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhong, Y. Gastric Cancer. In Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Cancer: Integrative Approaches and Discovery of Conventional Drugs; Alaoui-Jamali, M., Ed.; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp. 105–133 ISBN 9781441900197.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lubricants.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. World’s First Three-Parent Baby Raises Questions About Long-Term Health Risks (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA Aeronautics: Impact of Technology Transfer Activities Is Uncertain; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pantallion, A.S. A Parallel Comparison of Views Regarding Student Preparation for Introductory College Chemistry. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M.; Mather, V. To Avoid I.O.C. Cut, a Sport Changed. New York Times 2013, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLubricants
ISSN (online)2075-4442

Other styles