How to format your references using the Lubricants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lubricants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cravens, T.E. X-ray emission from comets. Science 2002, 296, 1042–1045.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pasare, C.; Medzhitov, R. Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors. Nature 2005, 438, 364–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Osta, M.A.; Christophides, G.K.; Kafatos, F.C. Effects of mosquito genes on Plasmodium development. Science 2004, 303, 2030–2032.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hoogendoorn, E.; Crosby, K.C.; Leyton-Puig, D.; Breedijk, R.M.P.; Jalink, K.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Postma, M. The fidelity of stochastic single-molecule super-resolution reconstructions critically depends upon robust background estimation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stuart, B. Forensic Analytical Techniques: Stuart/Forensic Analytical Techniques; Analytical Techniques in the Sciences; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118496879.
An edited book
Advances in Practical Multi-Agent Systems; Bai, Q., Fukuta, N., Eds.; Studies in Computational Intelligence; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 325; ISBN 9783642160974.
A chapter in an edited book
Barker, K. Combining Structured and Unstructured Knowledge Sources for Question Answering in Watson. In Data Integration in the Life Sciences: 8th International Conference, DILS 2012, College Park, MD, USA, June 28-29, 2012. Proceedings; Bodenreider, O., Rance, B., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 53–55 ISBN 9783642310393.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lubricants.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Scientists Have Managed To Probe The Icy Interior Of Ceres Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office District of Columbia: D.C. Public Schools Inappropriately Used Gas Utility Contract for Renovations; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2001;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momenteller, J. Optimization of Germination and Early Growth Conditions for Axenic Stanleya pinnata, a Potential Phytoremediation Candidate for Selenium. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nir, S.M.; Barron, J. Relief and Trepidation as Ride-Hailing Services Become Legal Across New York. New York Times 2017, A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLubricants
ISSN (online)2075-4442

Other styles