How to format your references using the Lubricants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lubricants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman, M.R. Specification and morphogenesis of astrocytes. Science 2010, 330, 774–778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crompton, R.H.; Pataky, T.C. Anthropology. Stepping out. Science 2009, 323, 1174–1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilmes, S.; Müller, R.; Salawitch, R. The sensitivity of polar ozone depletion to proposed geoengineering schemes. Science 2008, 320, 1201–1204.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Levison, H.F.; Bottke, W.F.; Gounelle, M.; Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorný, D.; Tsiganis, K. Contamination of the asteroid belt by primordial trans-Neptunian objects. Nature 2009, 460, 364–366.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, R.J.; Groundwater, P.W.; Todd, A.; Worsley, A.J. Antibacterial Agents; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118325421.
An edited book
Chemical Science of π-Electron Systems; Akasaka, T., Osuka, A., Fukuzumi, S., Kandori, H., Aso, Y., Eds.; 1st ed. 2015.; Springer Japan: Tokyo, 2015; ISBN 9784431553564.
A chapter in an edited book
Mantecón, T.; del-Blanco, C.R.; Jaureguizar, F.; García, N. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Infrared Imagery Provided by Leap Motion Controller. In Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 17th International Conference, ACIVS 2016, Lecce, Italy, October 24-27, 2016, Proceedings; Blanc-Talon, J., Distante, C., Philips, W., Popescu, D., Scheunders, P., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 47–57 ISBN 9783319486796.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lubricants.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Khaled al-Asaad, The Martyr Of Palmyra Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Interpretation of Continuing Education and Training Requirements; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1991;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard, J.M. The Effect of Manufacturing Establishments on Local Area per Capita Personal Income in the U.S. 1967-1990. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Van Gelder, S.K.C. by L. Arts, Briefly; Can They Make Book on Dostoyevsky? New York Times 2005, E4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLubricants
ISSN (online)2075-4442

Other styles