How to format your references using the Lubricants citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lubricants. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Murphy, G. Dyslexia: Lost for Words. Nature 2003, 425, 340–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou, Z.; Zheng, S. The Missing Link in Ginkgo Evolution. Nature 2003, 423, 821–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yano, J.-I.; Talagrand, O.; Drossart, P. Outer Planets: Origins of Atmospheric Zonal Winds. Nature 2003, 421, 36.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, L.; Li, J.K.; Cheng, P.M.; Liu, G.; Wang, R.H.; Chen, B.A.; Zhang, J.Y.; Sun, J.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, G. Microalloying Ultrafine Grained Al Alloys with Enhanced Ductility. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Girmscheid, G. Bauprozesse Und Bauverfahren Des Tunnelbaus; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2013; ISBN 9783433603123.
An edited book
Computational Processing of the Portuguese Language: 9th International Conference, PROPOR 2010, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, April 27-30, 2010. Proceedings; Pardo, T.A.S., Branco, A., Klautau, A., Vieira, R., Lima, V.L.S. de, Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 6001; ISBN 9783642123191.
A chapter in an edited book
Patton, W.; McMahon, M. Theories Focusing on Content and Process. In Career Development and Systems Theory: Connecting Theory and Practice; McMahon, M., Ed.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2014; pp. 95–120 ISBN 9789462096356.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lubricants.

Blog post
Andrew, E. As Biodiversity Declines On Corn Farms, Pest Problems Grow Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Federal Assistance Provided to Institutions of Higher Education; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tam, R. Adaptation of AspectJ for C Sharp. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J. E.U. Lawmakers Approve Canada Trade Deal, in Message to Trump. New York Times 2017, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLubricants
ISSN (online)2075-4442

Other styles