How to format your references using the Clio Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clio Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myhre, G., ‘Consistency between Satellite-Derived and Modeled Estimates of the Direct Aerosol Effect’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 325, 5937 (2009), 187–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
Minton, D.A., and Malhotra, R., ‘A Record of Planet Migration in the Main Asteroid Belt’, Nature, 457, 7233 (2009), 1109–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
Georgellis, D., Kwon, O., and Lin, E.C., ‘Quinones as the Redox Signal for the Arc Two-Component System of Bacteria’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 292, 5525 (2001), 2314–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Arantes-Oliveira, N., Apfeld, J., Dillin, A., and Kenyon, C., ‘Regulation of Life-Span by Germ-Line Stem Cells in Caenorhabditis Elegans’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 5554 (2002), 502–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F., Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 1 (Chichester, UK, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014).
An edited book
C. Kaklamanis, and F. Nielson (eds), Trustworthy Global Computing: 4th International Symposium, TGC 2008, Barcelona, Spain, November 3-4, 2008, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5474 (Berlin, Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009).
A chapter in an edited book
Ignaciuk, P., and Bartoszewicz, A., ‘Flow Control in Continuous-Time Systems’, in Bartoszewicz, A. (ed.), Congestion Control in Data Transmission Networks: Sliding Mode and Other Designs, Communications and Control Engineering (London, London: Springer, 2013), 61–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clio Medica.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., ‘This Site Helps You Delete Your Accounts And Disappear From The Internet’, IFLScience IFLScience, version published 29 November 2016,, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Telecommunications: Surveys of Consumers and of State Utility Commissions about Wireless Phone Service (GAO-10-35SP, November 2009), an E-Supplement to GAO-10-34, GAO-10-35SP (Washington, DC, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2009).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson, R.S., ‘A Phenomenological Hermeneutic Study of Radiology’, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., ‘Supreme Court Restricts the Taxation of Income of Companies Based Out of State’, New York Times, 16 April 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleClio Medica
ISSN (print)0045-7183

Other styles