How to format your references using the Clio Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clio Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gleick, P.H., ‘Soft Water Paths’, Nature, 418, 6896 (2002), 373.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pyenson, N.D., and Pyenson, L., ‘Treating Medieval Manuscripts as Fossils’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 309, 5735 (2005), 698–701; author reply 698-701.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whittington, A.G., Hofmeister, A.M., and Nabelek, P.I., ‘Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity of the Earth’s Crust and Implications for Magmatism’, Nature, 458, 7236 (2009), 319–21.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vose, R.S., Karl, T.R., Easterling, D.R., Williams, C.N., and Menne, M.J., ‘Climate (Communication Arising): Impact of Land-Use Change on Climate’, Nature, 427, 6971 (2004), 213–4; discussion 214.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kang, C.W., and Kvam, P.H., Basic Statistical Tools for Improving Quality (Hoboken, NJ, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
S.A. Helekar (ed.), Animal Models of Speech and Language Disorders (New York, NY, New York, NY: Springer, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Deutsch, H., ‘Microscopes and Endoscopes’, in Phillips, F., Lieberman, I., and Polly, D. (eds), Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery: Surgical Techniques and Disease Management (New York, NY, New York, NY: Springer, 2014), 37–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clio Medica.

Blog post
Luntz, S., ‘Sound, Water and Camera Make A Zigzag of Awesome’, IFLScience IFLScience, version published 20 May 2014,, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aircraft Development: The Advanced Tactical Fighter’s Costs, Schedule, and Performance Goals, NSIAD-88-76 (Washington, DC, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dougherty, M.H., ‘Identification of Needs Reported by Grandparents of Grandchildren, from Birth to Twenty-One Years, with Disabilities in the Commonwealth of Kentucky’, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., ‘Supreme Court Rebuffs a Challenge to New York’s Way of Picking Its Judges’, New York Times, 17 January 2008.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference P.H. Gleick, ‘Soft Water Paths’, Nature, 418, 6896 (2002), 373,
This sentence cites two references P.H. Gleick, ‘Soft Water Paths’, Nature, 418, 6896 (2002), 373,; N.D. Pyenson and L. Pyenson, ‘Treating Medieval Manuscripts as Fossils’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 309, 5735 (2005), 698–701; author reply 698-701,

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: R.S. Vose et al., ‘Climate (Communication Arising): Impact of Land-Use Change on Climate’, Nature, 427, 6971 (2004), 213–4; discussion 214,

About the journal

Full journal titleClio Medica
ISSN (print)0045-7183

Other styles