How to format your references using the Clio Medica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clio Medica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R., ‘Transgenic Corn Found Growing in Mexico’, Nature, 413, 6854 (2001), 337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shortle, D., and Ackerman, M.S., ‘Persistence of Native-like Topology in a Denatured Protein in 8 M Urea’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 293, 5529 (2001), 487–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, D.R., Pendry, J.B., and Wiltshire, M.C.K., ‘Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 305, 5685 (2004), 788–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Banal, J.L., White, J.M., Ghiggino, K.P., and Wong, W.W.H., ‘Concentrating Aggregation-Induced Fluorescence in Planar Waveguides: A Proof-of-Principle’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 4635.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J., and Wang, Q., Body Area Communications (Singapore, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2012).
An edited book
Gravett, L.S., Learning Agility: The Impact on Recruitment and Retention, Caldwell, S.A. (ed.) (New York, NY, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Gerosa, M., Marconi, A., Pistore, M., and Traverso, P., ‘An Open Platform for Children’s Independent Mobility’, in Helfert, M., Krempels, K.-H., Klein, C., Donellan, B., and Guiskhin, O. (eds), Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems: 4th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2015, and 1st International Conference VEHITS 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers, Communications in Computer and Information Science (Cham, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015), 50–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clio Medica.

Blog post
Andrew, E., ‘Bizarre Sinkholes Discovered on Rosetta Comet’, IFLScience IFLScience, version published 1 July 2015,, accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Business Modernization: NASA Must Consider Agencywide Needs to Reap the Full Benefits of Its Enterprise Management System Modernization Effort, GAO-07-691 (Washington, DC, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmittel, M., ‘The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program’, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., ‘A Rail Terminal With Flair and Grandeur Is a Survivor’, New York Times, 1 October 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference R. Dalton, ‘Transgenic Corn Found Growing in Mexico’, Nature, 413, 6854 (2001), 337,
This sentence cites two references R. Dalton, ‘Transgenic Corn Found Growing in Mexico’, Nature, 413, 6854 (2001), 337,; D. Shortle and M.S. Ackerman, ‘Persistence of Native-like Topology in a Denatured Protein in 8 M Urea’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 293, 5529 (2001), 487–9,

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors:
  • Three authors:
  • 4 or more authors: J.L. Banal et al., ‘Concentrating Aggregation-Induced Fluorescence in Planar Waveguides: A Proof-of-Principle’, Scientific Reports, 4 (2014), 4635,

About the journal

Full journal titleClio Medica
ISSN (print)0045-7183

Other styles