How to format your references using the Low Temperature Physics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Low Temperature Physics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1 K.R. Chien, “Regenerative biology: heartbroken embryos heal,” Nature 498(7455), 439–440 (2013).
A journal article with 2 authors
1 R.F. Keeling, and M. Visbeck, “Palaeoceanography. Antarctic stratification and glacial CO2,” Nature 412(6847), 605–606 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
1 B.E. Depue, T. Curran, and M.T. Banich, “Prefrontal regions orchestrate suppression of emotional memories via a two-phase process,” Science 317(5835), 215–219 (2007).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1 N.E. Hussey, M. Abdel-Jawad, A. Carrington, A.P. Mackenzie, and L. Balicas, “A coherent three-dimensional Fermi surface in a high-transition-temperature superconductor,” Nature 425(6960), 814–817 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1 L. Nemethy, Business Exit Planning (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011).
An edited book
1 C. Greenberg, B. Collins, and F. Thompson III, editors , Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011).
A chapter in an edited book
1 L. Johnson, in Social Capital and Community Well-Being: The Serve Here Initiative, edited by A.G. Greenberg, T.P. Gullotta, and M. Bloom (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016), pp. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Low Temperature Physics.

Blog post
1 A. Carpineti, “New Nuclear Reactor Could Hold The Secret Of Lasting Fusion,” IFLScience, (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1 Government Accountability Office, Unanswered Questions on Educating Handicapped Children in Local Public Schools (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1 V. Sharma, Functional Characterization of Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers in Caenorhabditis Elegans, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1 M.W. Walsh, “James Wood, 85; Revived A.&P. Chain,” New York Times, A22 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLow Temperature Physics
AbbreviationLow Temp. Phys.
ISSN (print)1063-777X
ISSN (online)1090-6517
ScopeGeneral Physics and Astronomy
Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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