How to format your references using the Local Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Local Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Okumura, Mitchio. 2015. “Atmospheric Chemistry. Just Add Water Dimers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6223): 718–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
McNiven, Mark A., and Heather M. Thompson. 2006. “Vesicle Formation at the Plasma Membrane and Trans-Golgi Network: The Same but Different.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5793): 1591–1594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montoya, José M., Stuart L. Pimm, and Ricard V. Solé. 2006. “Ecological Networks and Their Fragility.” Nature 442 (7100): 259–264.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Meiri, Meirav, Dorothée Huchon, Guy Bar-Oz, Elisabetta Boaretto, Liora Kolska Horwitz, Aren M. Maeir, Lidar Sapir-Hen, Greger Larson, Steve Weiner, and Israel Finkelstein. 2013. “Ancient DNA and Population Turnover in Southern Levantine Pigs--Signature of the Sea Peoples Migration?” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3035.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levin, Ross. 2011. Implementing the Wealth Management Index. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Katsy, Elena I., ed. 2014. Plasticity in Plant-Growth-Promoting and Phytopathogenic Bacteria. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Newton, Alan, and Andrew Vickers. 2007. “The Benefits of Electronic Safety Cases.” In The Safety of Systems: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Safety-Critical Systems Symposium, Bristol, UK, 13–15 February 2007, edited by Felix Redmill and Tom Anderson, 69–82. London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Local Environment.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “Ground Squirrels Use The Sun To Hide Their Food Stash.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Airline Deregulation: Changes in Airfares, Service Quality, and Barriers to Entry. RCED-99-92. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Terry, Ernita J. 2008. “In Search of Leadership: A Look at Women Presidents in Georgia’s Two-Year Colleges and Technical Colleges.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben. 2016. “Tennis Star Is Stabbed in Invasion of Home.” New York Times, December 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Okumura 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Okumura 2015; McNiven and Thompson 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McNiven and Thompson 2006)
  • Three authors: (Montoya, Pimm, and Solé 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Meiri et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLocal Environment
AbbreviationLocal Environ.
ISSN (print)1354-9839
ISSN (online)1469-6711
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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