How to format your references using the Local Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Local Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, Michael. 2009. “Neural Circuits: Putting Neurons on the Map.” Nature 461 (7267): 1149–1152.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lu, Peter J., and Paul J. Steinhardt. 2007. “Decagonal and Quasi-Crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5815): 1106–1110.
A journal article with 3 authors
Longrich, Nicholas R., Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar, and Jacques A. Gauthier. 2012. “A Transitional Snake from the Late Cretaceous Period of North America.” Nature 488 (7410): 205–208.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rose, Christine R., Robert Blum, Bruno Pichler, Alexandra Lepier, Karl W. Kafitz, and Arthur Konnerth. 2003. “Truncated TrkB-T1 Mediates Neurotrophin-Evoked Calcium Signalling in Glia Cells.” Nature 426 (6962): 74–78.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cicek, Volkan, and Bayan Al-Numan. 2011. Corrosion Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Inter-American Development Bank. 2016. Saving for Development: How Latin America and the Caribbean Can Save More and Better. Edited by Eduardo Cavallo and Tomás Serebrisky. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiang, Yong, Dezhong Peng, and Zuyuan Yang. 2015. “Future Work.” In Blind Source Separation: Dependent Component Analysis, edited by Dezhong Peng and Zuyuan Yang, 91–94. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Local Environment.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “How Dogs Are Really Affected By Fireworks – And What You Can Do To Help.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Mass Transit: Bus Rapid Transit Shows Promise. GAO-01-984. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conlin, Luke D. 2012. “Building Shared Understandings in Introductory Physics Tutorials through Risk, Repair, Conflict & Comedy.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin, Susan. 2013. “For Carry-On Bags, Size Is Just the Beginning.” New York Times, December 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2009; Lu and Steinhardt 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lu and Steinhardt 2007)
  • Three authors: (Longrich, Bhullar, and Gauthier 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Rose et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLocal Environment
AbbreviationLocal Environ.
ISSN (print)1354-9839
ISSN (online)1469-6711
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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