How to format your references using the Local Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Local Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson, Mikhail I. 2010. “Chemistry. Just Add Water.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5996): 1157–1158.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Mark S., and M. Christina White. 2010. “Combined Effects on Selectivity in Fe-Catalyzed Methylene Oxidation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5965): 566–571.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mahadevan, Amala, Leif N. Thomas, and Amit Tandon. 2008. “Comment on ‘Eddy/Wind Interactions Stimulate Extraordinary Mid-Ocean Plankton Blooms.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5875): 448; author reply 448.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shah, Alok S., Yehuda Ben-Shahar, Thomas O. Moninger, Joel N. Kline, and Michael J. Welsh. 2009. “Motile Cilia of Human Airway Epithelia Are Chemosensory.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5944): 1131–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaltashov, Igor A., and Stephen J. Eyles. 2005. Mass Spectrometry in Biophysics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Okeoma, Chioma M., ed. 2016. Chikungunya Virus: Advances in Biology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Calafiore, Giuseppe C., Luca Carlone, and Frank Dellaert. 2016. “Lagrangian Duality in Complex Pose Graph Optimization.” In Optimization and Its Applications in Control and Data Sciences: In Honor of Boris T. Polyak’s 80th Birthday, edited by Boris Goldengorin, 139–184. Springer Optimization and Its Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Local Environment.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Cause For Astronaut Sight Problems Discovered.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Highway Infrastructure: Physical Conditions of the Interstate Highway System Have Improved, but Congestion and Other Pressure Continue. GAO-02-1128T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burke, Keith. 2012. “Big Five Personality Traits and Astrology: The Relationship between the Moon Variable and the NEO PI-R.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, James. 2017. “‘Stupid Us’: U.S. Retirees and Fraud Tied to E.U. Commissioner.” New York Times, May 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katsnelson 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Katsnelson 2010; Chen and White 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and White 2010)
  • Three authors: (Mahadevan, Thomas, and Tandon 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shah et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLocal Environment
AbbreviationLocal Environ.
ISSN (print)1354-9839
ISSN (online)1469-6711
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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