How to format your references using the Local Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Local Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tso, T. C. 2004. “Agriculture of the Future.” Nature 428 (6979): 215–217.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herrera, Ana M., and Martin J. Cohn. 2014. “Embryonic Origin and Compartmental Organization of the External Genitalia.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 6896.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grieco, Fabrizio, Arie J. van Noordwijk, and Marcel E. Visser. 2002. “Evidence for the Effect of Learning on Timing of Reproduction in Blue Tits.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5565): 136–138.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lamers, M. H., A. Perrakis, J. H. Enzlin, H. H. Winterwerp, N. de Wind, and T. K. Sixma. 2000. “The Crystal Structure of DNA Mismatch Repair Protein MutS Binding to a G x T Mismatch.” Nature 407 (6805): 711–717.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shapiro, Ian M. 2016. Energy Audits and Improvements for Commercial Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Valdez, Tulio, and Jesus Vallejo, eds. 2016. Infectious Diseases in Pediatric Otolaryngology: A Practical Guide. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bretl, Timothy, and Zoe McCarthy. 2013. “Equilibrium Configurations of a Kirchhoff Elastic Rod under Quasi-Static Manipulation.” In Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics X: Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, edited by Emilio Frazzoli, Tomas Lozano-Perez, Nicholas Roy, and Daniela Rus, 71–87. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Local Environment.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Pilot Films Mind-Blowing Time-Lapse Video Of The Milky Way.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Highway Safety: Better Guidance Could Improve Oversight of State Highway Safety Programs. GAO-03-474. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giuseffi, Francesco G. 2014. “Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Jeter Could Leave the Yankees To Expand His Horizons, and Attire.” New York Times, December 2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tso 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Tso 2004; Herrera and Cohn 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Herrera and Cohn 2014)
  • Three authors: (Grieco, van Noordwijk, and Visser 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lamers et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLocal Environment
AbbreviationLocal Environ.
ISSN (print)1354-9839
ISSN (online)1469-6711
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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