How to format your references using the Local Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Local Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Junge, Christine. 2011. “Morbidity: A Personal Response.” Nature 480 (7376): S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brazeau, Martin D., and Per E. Ahlberg. 2006. “Tetrapod-like Middle Ear Architecture in a Devonian Fish.” Nature 439 (7074): 318–321.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, Will R., Michael Oppenheimer, and David S. Wilcove. 2009. “A Force to Fight Global Warming.” Nature 462 (7271): 278–279.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Cai, Dongqing, Zhengyan Wu, Jiang Jiang, Yuejin Wu, Huiyun Feng, Ian G. Brown, Paul K. Chu, and Zengliang Yu. 2014. “Controlling Nitrogen Migration through Micro-Nano Networks.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3665.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kirchner, Thomas. 2016. Merger Arbitrage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Banerjee, Swapnendu, Vivekananda Mukherjee, and Sushil Kumar Haldar, eds. 2016. Understanding Development: An Indian Perspective on Legal and Economic Policy. 1st ed. 2016. India Studies in Business and Economics. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Clausen, Bjørn, Donald W. Brown, Carlos N. Tomé, C. John Neil, James A. Wollmershauser, and Sean R. Agnew. 2011. “Application of a Finite Strain Elastic-Plastic Self-Consistent Model to Deformation of Magnesium.” In Engineering Applications of Residual Stress, Volume 8: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, edited by Tom Proulx, 33–34. Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Local Environment.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “9 Things That Can Make You Less Attractive, According To Science.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Social Security Numbers: Internet Resellers Provide Few Full SSNs, but Congress Should Consider Enacting Standards for Truncating SSNs. GAO-06-495. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Connell, Annette Margaret. 2008. “Customer Retention and Leadership in the Nonprofit Healthcare Organization.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. “Justices’ Ruling Limits Lawsuits On Pay Disparity.” New York Times, May 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Junge 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Junge 2011; Brazeau and Ahlberg 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brazeau and Ahlberg 2006)
  • Three authors: (Turner, Oppenheimer, and Wilcove 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Cai et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLocal Environment
AbbreviationLocal Environ.
ISSN (print)1354-9839
ISSN (online)1469-6711
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles