How to format your references using the Local Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Local Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rust, J. 2000. “Fossil Record of Mass Moth Migration.” Nature 405 (6786): 530–531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Best, Robert B., and Gerhard Hummer. 2009. “Biochemistry. Unfolding the Secrets of Calmodulin.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5914): 593–594.
A journal article with 3 authors
Henry, Gary T., C. Kevin Fortner, and Kevin C. Bastian. 2012. “The Effects of Experience and Attrition for Novice High-School Science and Mathematics Teachers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6072): 1118–1121.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gray, W. M., S. Kepinski, D. Rouse, O. Leyser, and M. Estelle. 2001. “Auxin Regulates SCF(TIR1)-Dependent Degradation of AUX/IAA Proteins.” Nature 414 (6861): 271–276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen, Michael W. 2016. Michael Allen’s Guide to e-Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hayat, M. A., ed. 2013. Pediatric Cancer, Volume 4: Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis. Vol. 4. Pediatric Cancer, Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Al-Salman, Rami, Frank Dylla, and Lutz Frommberger. 2013. “An Approach to Qualitative Emergency Management.” In Intelligent Systems for Crisis Management: Geo-Information for Disaster Management (Gi4DM) 2012, edited by Sisi Zlatanova, Rob Peters, Arta Dilo, and Hans Scholten, 43–50. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Local Environment.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “Why Do You Need Permission To Land On The Moon?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Radioactive Sources: Opportunities Exist for Federal Agencies to Strengthen Transportation Security. GAO-17-58. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mitra, Avishek. 2014. “Sigma Factor N: A Novel Regulator of Acid Resistance and Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Escherichia Coli O157:H7.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. “A Shoe With Meow.” New York Times, August 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rust 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Rust 2000; Best and Hummer 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Best and Hummer 2009)
  • Three authors: (Henry, Fortner, and Bastian 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gray et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleLocal Environment
AbbreviationLocal Environ.
ISSN (print)1354-9839
ISSN (online)1469-6711
ScopeManagement, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Geography, Planning and Development

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