How to format your references using the Zoological Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Zoological Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. McCauley DJ. Selling out on nature. Nature. 2006;443:27–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wardle DA, Lindahl BD. Ecology. Disentangling global soil fungal diversity. Science. 2014;346:1052–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Grutzendler J, Kasthuri N, Gan W-B. Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex. Nature. 2002;420:812–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Frankland PW, Bontempi B, Talton LE, Kaczmarek L, Silva AJ. The involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex in remote contextual fear memory. Science. 2004;304:881–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tolinski M. Plastics and Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Schutz A. Collected Papers VI. Literary Reality and Relationships. Barber M, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Coates AJ, Wahlund J-E, Ågren K, Edberg N, Cui J, Wellbrock A, et al. Recent Results from Titan’s Ionosphere. In: Szego K, editor. The Plasma Environment of Venus, Mars, and Titan. New York, NY: Springer US; 2012. p. 85–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Zoological Letters.

Blog post
1. Hale T. There’s Some Really Gross Stuff In A Lot Of Burgers [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/theres-some-gross-stuff-burgers-according-report/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects: Many Federal and State Environmental Review Requirements Are Similar, and Little Duplication of Effort Occurs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Nov. Report No.: GAO-15-71.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bratton KJ. Modeling and Control of Heterogeneous Tumors Under Chemotherapy [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Justices Consider a Loss in a 401(k) Plan. New York Times. 2007 Nov 27;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleZoological Letters
AbbreviationZoological Lett.
ISSN (online)2056-306X
Scope

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