How to format your references using the Hydrogeology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrogeology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P (2004) State of the unions. Nature 428:965
A journal article with 2 authors
Solozhenko VL, Kurakevych OO (2013) Equilibrium p-T phase diagram of boron: experimental study and thermodynamic analysis. Sci Rep 3:2351
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu J, Zhang C, Qiao H (2014) The significance of p40 expression in sclerosing hemangioma of lung. Sci Rep 4:6102
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Stevenson RM, Young RJ, Atkinson P, et al (2006) A semiconductor source of triggered entangled photon pairs. Nature 439:179–182

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tikhomirov VV (2016) Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Banik BK (ed) (2010) Heterocyclic Scaffolds I: ß-Lactams. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Venkatesh T, Siva Ram Murthy C (2010) TCP over OBS Networks. In: Murthy CSR (ed) An Analytical Approach to Optical Burst Switched Networks. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 199–255

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrogeology Journal.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2015) How The Universe’s Brightest Galaxies Became So Bright. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Information Resource Management Internal Control Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McElhoes JL (2017) Spatial, Technological, and Functional Variability Among the Prehistoric Ceramics of the Southern California Coast. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) Wing-Suited Stuntman Executes a Super-Hero Plunge. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Solozhenko and Kurakevych 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Solozhenko and Kurakevych 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Stevenson et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrogeology Journal
AbbreviationHydrogeol. J.
ISSN (print)1431-2174
ISSN (online)1435-0157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Water Science and Technology

Other styles