How to format your references using the Hydrogeology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrogeology Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sapolsky RM (2005) The influence of social hierarchy on primate health. Science 308:648–652
A journal article with 2 authors
Lake JK, Ostling A (2009) Comment on “Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest.” Science 324:1015; author reply 1015
A journal article with 3 authors
Bix M, Kim S, Rao A (2005) Immunology. Opposites attract in differentiating T cells. Science 308:1563–1565
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pellegrini L, Yu DS, Lo T, et al (2002) Insights into DNA recombination from the structure of a RAD51-BRCA2 complex. Nature 420:287–293

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Braudeau E, Assi AT, Mohtar RH (2016) Hydrostructural Pedology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lepora NF, Mura A, Mangan M, et al (eds) (2016) Biomimetic and Biohybrid Systems: 5th International Conference, Living Machines 2016, Edinburgh, UK, July 19-22, 2016. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Bakir A, Chesler G, de la Torriente M (2016) Using Core Motion to Save Motion Data. In: Chesler G, Torriente M de la (eds) Program the Internet of Things with Swift for iOS. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 99–117

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrogeology Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Lead Magnetizes Graphene, With Implications For Future Computing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Software Reuse: Major Issues Need to Be Resolved Before Benefits Can Be Achieved. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kessler C (2013) Elements. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman J (2016) Jaws: The Story of the Stag Beetle. New York Times D2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sapolsky 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Sapolsky 2005; Lake and Ostling 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lake and Ostling 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Pellegrini et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrogeology Journal
AbbreviationHydrogeol. J.
ISSN (print)1431-2174
ISSN (online)1435-0157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Water Science and Technology

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