How to format your references using the Hydrogeology Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hydrogeology Journal (Hydrogeol J). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kuper A (2009) Obituary: Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009). Nature 462:862
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson KA, Ashcroft NW (2000) Structure and bandgap closure in dense hydrogen. Nature 403:632–635
A journal article with 3 authors
Moritz RE, Bitz CM, Steig EJ (2002) Dynamics of recent climate change in the Arctic. Science 297:1497–1502
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim MH, Shen L, Tao H, et al (2007) Conformationally controlled chemistry: excited-state dynamics dictate ground-state reaction. Science 315:1561–1565

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Habart-Corlosquet M, Janssen J, Manca R (2013) VaR Methodology for Non-Gaussian Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Franco AA, Doublet ML, Bessler WG (eds) (2016) Physical Multiscale Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Electrochemical Devices for Energy Conversion and Storage: From Theory to Engineering to Practice. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Forlini C, Bratu A, Forlini M, Rossini P (2016) Current Concepts and Management of Severely Traumatized Tissues in the Inner Coatings (The Anterior Segment: Anterior Chamber Structures, the Iris and the Lens) of the Globe: Mechanical Injuries. In: Sobacı G (ed) Current Concepts and Management of Eye Injuries. Springer, London, pp 41–64

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hydrogeology Journal.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Scientists Discover Enormous Cretaceous-Era Shark. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Reallocation of TV Channels 60-69, the 746-806 MHz Band. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fahmy C (2012) Intoxicated by music: A content analysis of the prevalence of alcohol, illicit substances, and tobacco in popular music from 2000 to 2011. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Colt GH (2012) Sibling Rivalry: One Long Food Fight. New York Times SR3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kuper 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kuper 2009, [CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Ashcroft 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleHydrogeology Journal
AbbreviationHydrogeol. J.
ISSN (print)1431-2174
ISSN (online)1435-0157
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Water Science and Technology

Other styles