How to format your references using the Livestock Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Livestock Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Peplow, M., 2013. Catalysis: The accelerator. Nature 495, S10-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilhite, A.W., Fong, E.A., 2012. Scientific publications. Coercive citation in academic publishing. Science 335, 542–543.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shubin, N.H., Daeschler, E.B., Coates, M.I., 2004. The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus. Science 304, 90–93.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goswami, B.N., Venugopal, V., Sengupta, D., Madhusoodanan, M.S., Xavier, P.K., 2006. Increasing trend of extreme rain events over India in a warming environment. Science 314, 1442–1445.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, R.A., 2010. Virgil. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
P. Hettiaratchy, S., Griffiths, M., Ali, F., Simmons, J. (Eds.), 2012. Plastic Surgery: A Problem Based Approach. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Anselmo, M., Madonia, M., 2011. Comparing Necessary Conditions for Recognizability of Two-Dimensional Languages, in: Winkler, F. (Ed.), Algebraic Informatics: 4th International Conference, CAI 2011, Linz, Austria, June 21-24, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 84–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Livestock Science.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Ebola Nations Declare First Week With No New Cases [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Business Systems Modernization: Air Force Needs to Fully Define Policies and Procedures for Institutionally Managing Investments (No. GAO-08-52). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rozas, K.N., 2014. Searching for Reel Consequences: A Content Analysis of Risk Behaviors, Gender and Character Consequences in PG-13 Movie Trailers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. ‘24’ Reboot Has a Dire Ring to It. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Peplow, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Peplow, 2013; Wilhite and Fong, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilhite and Fong, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Goswami et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleLivestock Science
AbbreviationLivest. Sci.
ISSN (print)1871-1413
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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