How to format your references using the Livestock Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Livestock Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx, V., 2015. Cancer: A most exceptional response. Nature 520, 389–393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schorlemmer, D., Wiemer, S., 2005. Earth science: microseismicity data forecast rupture area. Nature 434, 1086.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barnes, S.E., Ieda, J., Maekawa, S., 2014. Rashba spin-orbit anisotropy and the electric field control of magnetism. Sci. Rep. 4, 4105.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Georgiou, G., Tyagi, H.K., Mulder, P., Bauhuis, G.J., Schermer, J.J., Rivas, J.G., 2014. Photo-generated THz antennas. Sci. Rep. 4, 3584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruppel, W., 2014. GAAP for Governments 2014. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.
An edited book
Kan, J.H., 2007. Pediatric and Adolescent Musculoskeletal MRI: A Case-Based Approach. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Boender, C.G.E., Bovenberg, A.L., van Hoogdalem, S., Nijman, T.E., 2007. Optimal risk-sharing in private and collective pension contracts, in: Steenbeek, O., Lecq, F. van der (Eds.), Costs and Benefits of Collective Pension Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 75–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Livestock Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Simulation Sheds Light On How Massive Stars Form [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Interstate Commerce Commission: Impacts of Eliminating or Transferring Motor Carrier and Other Functions (No. T-RCED-95-119). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, J.R., 2010. Trajectories of parents’ experiences in discovering, reporting, and living with the aftermath of middle school bullying (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2010. A Run to Twilight at the Millrose Games. New York Times B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marx, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Marx, 2015; Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schorlemmer and Wiemer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Georgiou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLivestock Science
AbbreviationLivest. Sci.
ISSN (print)1871-1413
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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