How to format your references using the Livestock Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Livestock Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldstein, D.B., 2011. Growth of genome screening needs debate. Nature 476, 27–28.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atatüre, M., Morton, J.J.L., 2014. Quantum information. A gem of a quantum teleporter. Science 345, 510–511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pettinato, G., Wen, X., Zhang, N., 2014. Formation of well-defined embryoid bodies from dissociated human induced pluripotent stem cells using microfabricated cell-repellent microwell arrays. Sci. Rep. 4, 7402.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saadoun, S., Papadopoulos, M.C., Hara-Chikuma, M., Verkman, A.S., 2005. Impairment of angiogenesis and cell migration by targeted aquaporin-1 gene disruption. Nature 434, 786–792.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alvarez, P.J.J., Illman, W.A., 2005. Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Yamamura, N., Fujita, N., Maekawa, A. (Eds.), 2013. The Mongolian Ecosystem Network: Environmental Issues Under Climate and Social Changes, Ecological Research Monographs. Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Goczyła, K., Waloszek, W., Zawadzka, T., Zawadzki, M., 2008. Processing and Querying Description Logic Ontologies Using Cartographic Approach, in: Cotta, C., Reich, S., Schaefer, R., Ligęza, A. (Eds.), Knowledge-Driven Computing: Knowledge Engineering and Intelligent Computations, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 63–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Livestock Science.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Psychopaths Probably Do Experience Fear But May Be Unable To Sense Danger [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Aviation Security: DHS Has Taken Steps to Enhance International Aviation Security and Facilitate Compliance with International Standards, but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-11-238T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores, M.Y., 2010. Delinquency prevention program for Latino youth: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Quain, J.R., 2016. When a Sound System Can Mean Life or Death. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldstein, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Atatüre and Morton, 2014; Goldstein, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Atatüre and Morton, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Saadoun et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLivestock Science
AbbreviationLivest. Sci.
ISSN (print)1871-1413
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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