How to format your references using the Livestock Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Livestock Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D., 2009. Innovation strategy. Nature 461, 585.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kai, T., Spradling, A., 2004. Differentiating germ cells can revert into functional stem cells in Drosophila melanogaster ovaries. Nature 428, 564–569.
A journal article with 3 authors
Villar, G., Graham, A.D., Bayley, H., 2013. A tissue-like printed material. Science 340, 48–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cui, H., Su, J., Wei, J., Hu, Y., Ge, F., 2014. Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa. Sci. Rep. 4, 5350.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horváth, T., 2006. Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England.
An edited book
van der Laan, M.J., 2011. Targeted Learning: Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data, Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Terrill, A.L., Garofalo, J.P., 2012. Cardiovascular Disease and the Workplace, in: Gatchel, R.J., Schultz, I.Z. (Eds.), Handbook of Occupational Health and Wellness. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 87–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Livestock Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Once Again, Scientists Conclude That There’s No Evidence That Homeopathy Works [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1991. Attack Warning: Costs to Modernize NORAD’s Computer System Significantly Understated (No. IMTEC-91-23). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden, A., 2012. Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Baseball; Mets’ Wright Has Another Operation. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2009; Kai and Spradling, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kai and Spradling, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Cui et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLivestock Science
AbbreviationLivest. Sci.
ISSN (print)1871-1413
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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