How to format your references using the Livestock Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Livestock Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Running, S.W., 2012. Ecology. A measurable planetary boundary for the biosphere. Science 337, 1458–1459.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, D., Baverstock, K., 2006. Chernobyl and the future: too soon for a final diagnosis. Nature 440, 993–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Post, D.M., Pace, M.L., Hairston, N.G., Jr, 2000. Ecosystem size determines food-chain length in lakes. Nature 405, 1047–1049.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frey, G.D., Lavallo, V., Donnadieu, B., Schoeller, W.W., Bertrand, G., 2007. Facile splitting of hydrogen and ammonia by nucleophilic activation at a single carbon center. Science 316, 439–441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esmailzadeh, R., 2016. Broadband Telecommunications Technologies and Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kumar, P., Gupta, V.K., Tiwari, A.K., Kamle, M. (Eds.), 2016. Current Trends in Plant Disease Diagnostics and Management Practices, Fungal Biology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Delot, T., Ilarri, S., del Carmen Rodríguez-Hernández, M., 2014. Intelligent Transportation Systems – Maybe, But Where Are My Agents?, in: Mitton, N., Gallais, A., Kantarci, M.E., Papavassiliou, S. (Eds.), Ad Hoc Networks: 6th International ICST Conference, ADHOCNETS 2014, Rhodes, Greece, August 18-19, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 39–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Livestock Science.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. California’s Famous Giant Sequoia “Tunnel Tree” Falls From Heavy Rain [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Space Acquisitions: Challenges Facing DOD as it Changes Approaches to Space Acquisitions (No. GAO-16-471T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pepper, I., 2010. On the Difference between Serialism and Seriality (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2009. Good Customers, Bad Bill Payers. New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Running, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Running, 2012; Williams and Baverstock, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Baverstock, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Frey et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLivestock Science
AbbreviationLivest. Sci.
ISSN (print)1871-1413
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
General Veterinary

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