How to format your references using the Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Kleindienst TE. Chemistry. Epoxying isoprene chemistry. Science 2009;325:687–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Saviane C, Silver RA. Fast vesicle reloading and a large pool sustain high bandwidth transmission at a central synapse. Nature 2006;439:983–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Holland RA, Wikelski M, Wilcove DS. How and why do insects migrate? Science 2006;313:794–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Ma C, Liu M, Chen C, Lin Y, Li Y, Horwitz JS, et al. The origin of local strain in highly epitaxial oxide thin films. Sci Rep 2013;3:3092.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Segura J, Hawkins CF. CMOS Electronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Luo Y, editor. Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering: 4th International Conference, CDVE 2007, Shanghai, China, September 16-20, 2007. Proceedings. vol. 4674. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Job G, Rüffler R. Chemical Potential. In: Rüffler R, editor. Physical Chemistry from a Different Angle: Introducing Chemical Equilibrium, Kinetics and Electrochemistry by Numerous Experiments, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 93–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Paraplegic In “Ironman Suit” Will Take The First Kick In The 2014 World Cup. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/paraplegic-ironman-suit-will-take-first-kick-2014-world-cup/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail: Better Data and Communication of Uncertainties Can Help Decision Makers Understand Benefits and Trade-offs of Programs and Policies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Shetter RM. Assaulting the littorals: The development and evolution of a dedicated American amphibious assault force. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Dominus S. Halls of Justice. New York Times 2016:MM58.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy
AbbreviationEnergy (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)0360-5442
ScopeGeneral Energy
Pollution

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