How to format your references using the Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Abbott A. Neuroscience: genomics on the brain. Nature 2003;426:757.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Liu SQ, Cull-Candy SG. Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature 2000;405:454–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Law RM, Matear RJ, Francey RJ. Comment on “Saturation of the southern ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change.” Science 2008;319:570; author reply 570.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Benabid F, Couny F, Knight JC, Birks TA, Russell PSJ. Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Nature 2005;434:488–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Wang Z-G. Internal Combustion Processes of Liquid Rocket Engines. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Kalia S, Kaith BS, Kaur I, editors. Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites: Green Chemistry and Technology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Deflaux G, Agagliate T, Durand J-E, Yamaogo P. Computerization of Medical Consultation for Children Under Five Years of Age in Rural Areas of Burkina Faso. In: Bolay J-C, Hostettler S, Hazboun E, editors. Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Way to Reduce Poverty?, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy.

Blog post
[1]
Evans K. By Age 6 Girls Are More Likely To Think “Genius” And “Brilliance” Are Male Traits, Not Female. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/by-age-6-girls-are-more-likely-to-think-genius-and-brilliance-are-male-traits-not-female/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Administration: Software Development Process Improvements Started But Work Remains. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Anyaoha AL. Surgical time-out: A nursing team training approach. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wagner J. Bruce Limps Off, and the Mets Crumble. New York Times 2016:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy
AbbreviationEnergy (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)0360-5442
ScopeGeneral Energy
Pollution

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