How to format your references using the Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balco G. Climate. The geographic footprint of glacier change. Science 2009;324:599–600.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shah RR, Abbott NL. Principles for measurement of chemical exposure based on recognition-driven anchoring transitions in liquid crystals. Science 2001;293:1296–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pohl MED, Pope KO, von Nagy C. Olmec origins of Mesoamerican writing. Science 2002;298:1984–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sañudo-Wilhelmy SA, Tovar-Sanchez A, Fu F-X, Capone DG, Carpenter EJ, Hutchins DA. The impact of surface-adsorbed phosphorus on phytoplankton Redfield stoichiometry. Nature 2004;432:897–901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackwood N. Advanced Excel Reporting for Management Accountants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Monekosso D, Remagnino P, Kuno Y, editors. Intelligent Environments: Methods, Algorithms and Applications. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Kyei PP. Energy Conservation in Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Units. In: Schmidt M, Onyango V, Palekhov D, editors. Implementing Environmental and Resource Management, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 33–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy.

Blog post
Andrews R. Groundbreaking Skin Cancer Treatment Given Approval In Record Time. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Telephone Access to Local Field Offices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Little JL. The effects of a financial literacy intervention on teachers’ financial literacy, awareness, and advocacy. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Unexpected State Aid to Ease School Taxes. New York Times 2008:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy
AbbreviationEnergy (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)0360-5442
ScopeGeneral Energy

Other styles