How to format your references using the Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Victora GD. Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Stop, go, and evolve. Science 2013;342:1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burke JM, Rieseberg LH. Fitness effects of transgenic disease resistance in sunflowers. Science 2003;300:1250.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Z, Xu B, Zhou H-J. Social cycling and conditional responses in the Rock-Paper-Scissors game. Sci Rep 2014;4:5830.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pan F, Sun L, Kardian DB, Whartenby KA, Pardoll DM, Liu JO. Feedback inhibition of calcineurin and Ras by a dual inhibitory protein Carabin. Nature 2007;445:433–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair R. Organic Production and Food Quality. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Sciammarella C, Considine J, Gloeckner P, editors. Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Schwartz NB, Domowicz MS. Chemistry and Function of Glycosaminoglycans in the Nervous System. In: Yu RK, Schengrund C-L, editors. Glycobiology of the Nervous System, New York, NY: Springer; 2014, p. 89–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy.

Blog post
Davis J. Arsenic In American Red Wine Exceeds Legal Levels For Drinking Water. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Better Guidance Would Improve ADP Evaluations in Support of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norman CL. Perceptions of non-traditional programs within Missouri school districts. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Beyoncé and Radiohead to Headline Coachella. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy
AbbreviationEnergy (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)0360-5442
ScopeGeneral Energy

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