How to format your references using the Energy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chaddah P. Not all plagiarism requires a retraction. Nature 2014;511:127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Coburn W, Boggs SE. Polarization of the prompt gamma-ray emission from the gamma-ray burst of 6 December 2002. Nature 2003;423:415–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grantab R, Shenoy VB, Ruoff RS. Anomalous strength characteristics of tilt grain boundaries in graphene. Science 2010;330:946–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tan SH, Maes F, Semin B, Vrignon J, Baret J-C. The microfluidic jukebox. Sci Rep 2014;4:4787.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mamishev A, Williams S. Technical Writing for Teams. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Preedy VR, Patel VB, editors. General Methods in Biomarker Research and their Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Miseres V. “The Personal is Political.” In: Gómez L, Horno-Delgado A, Long MK, Silleras-Fernández N, editors. Teaching Gender through Latin American, Latino, and Iberian Texts and Cultures, Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015, p. 57–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Scientists To Trial Personalized Vaccine Against One Type Of Cancer. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Communications: Performance of NASA’s White Sands Ground Terminal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shackelford V. Mary’s mandala story: Images of chaos in mandala psychology. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. Hank’s Long Suffering. New York Times 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy
AbbreviationEnergy (Oxf.)
ISSN (print)0360-5442
ScopeGeneral Energy

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