How to format your references using the Liver Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson BJ. Development. Wiring the brain with insulin. Science. 2003 Apr;300(5618):440–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boots M, Mealor M. Local interactions select for lower pathogen infectivity. Science. 2007 Mar;315(5816):1284–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyvat M, Hafner C, Leuthold J. Wireless control and selection of forces and torques--towards wireless engines. Sci Rep. 2014 Jul;4:5681.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Falck J, Mailand N, Syljuåsen RG, Bartek J, Lukas J. The ATM-Chk2-Cdc25A checkpoint pathway guards against radioresistant DNA synthesis. Nature. 2001 Apr;410(6830):842–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Overhauser A. Anomalous Effects in Simple Metals. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2010.
An edited book
Grofman B, Trechsel AH, Franklin M, editors. The Internet and Democracy in Global Perspective: Voters, Candidates, Parties, and Social Movements. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Proctor T. The Development of Cyber Security Warning, Advice and Report Points. In: Jøsang A, Carlsson B, editors. Secure IT Systems: 17th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2012, Karlskrona, Sweden, October 31 – November 2, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012; pp 61–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Cancer.

Blog post
Taub B. A Monkey Has Survived For A Record Period Of Time With A Pig’s Heart [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FEA Procurement of Automatic Data Processing Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hammarsten C. Decorated Heegaard Diagrams and Combinatorial Heegaard Floer Homology. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Defends Position on Iraqi War. New York Times. 1992 Jul;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Cancer
AbbreviationLiver Cancer
ISSN (print)2235-1795
ISSN (online)1664-5553

Other styles