How to format your references using the Liver Cancer citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Liver Cancer. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. Public library set to turn publisher as boycott looms. Nature. 2001 Aug;412(6846):469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chaudhuri J, Jasin M. Immunology. Antibodies get a break. Science. 2007 Jan;315(5810):335–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dally JM, Emery NJ, Clayton NS. Food-caching western scrub-jays keep track of who was watching when. Science. 2006 Jun;312(5780):1662–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee W-L, Watauchi S, Miller VL, Cava RJ, Ong NP. Dissipationless anomalous Hall current in the ferromagnetic spinel CuCr2Se4-xBrx. Science. 2004 Mar;303(5664):1647–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coleman DD, Westcott DA, Harkins BE. CWSP®: Certified Wireless Security Professional Study Guide CWSP-205. Indianapolis, Indiana: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Heuser RR, Schlaich M, Sievert H, editors. Renal Denervation: A New Approach to Treatment of Resistant Hypertension. London: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Omosebi A, Besser RS. Nanotechnology Innovations for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells for Micro Autonomous Systems. In: Guo Y, editor. Selected Topics in Micro/Nano-robotics for Biomedical Applications. New York, NY: Springer; 2013; pp 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Liver Cancer.

Blog post
Fang J. E. coli Gets a Circadian Clock Transplant [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jun


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Structural Costs Continue to Challenge Legacy Airlines’ Financial Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salamah H. Potential barriers to seeking medical care: Does obesity and/or self-esteem result in decreased frequency of necessary medical office visits? 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G. A Future as Clouded as Their Past. New York Times. 2014 Sep;D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLiver Cancer
AbbreviationLiver Cancer
ISSN (print)2235-1795
ISSN (online)1664-5553

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