How to format your references using the Lithosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lithosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson, S.M., 2005, Neuroscience. Matching at the synapse: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 308, p. 800–801.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rappaport, S.M., and Smith, M.T., 2010, Epidemiology. Environment and disease risks: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 330, p. 460–461.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fan, C., Li, J., and Wang, L., 2014, Phase transitions, mechanical properties and electronic structures of novel boron phases under high-pressure: a first-principles study: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 6786.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Furnes, H., de Wit, M., Staudigel, H., Rosing, M., and Muehlenbachs, K., 2007, A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 315, p. 1704–1707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golding, P., 2005, Next Generation Wireless Applications: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Weible, C.M., Heikkila, T., Ingold, K., and Fischer, M. (Eds.), 2016, Policy Debates on Hydraulic Fracturing: Comparing Coalition Politics in North America and Europe: New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan US, XVII, 276 p. 18 illus., 1 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Yang, L., Zhu, Y., Ren, X., and Zhang, Y., 2014, Proximity Relative Motion Planning, in Zhu, Y., Ren, X., and Zhang, Y. eds., On-Orbit Operations Optimization: Modeling and Algorithms, New York, NY, Springer, SpringerBriefs in Optimization, p. 37–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lithosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, Researchers Use Light To Recover ‘Lost’ Memories: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013, Alternative Methods for Collecting Airport Passenger Facility Charges: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-13-262R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bremond, D.S., 2017, When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California [Doctoral dissertation]: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017, Film Series: New York Times, p. C20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thompson, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson, 2005; Rappaport and Smith, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rappaport and Smith, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Furnes et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleLithosphere
ISSN (print)1941-8264
ISSN (online)1947-4253

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