How to format your references using the Lithosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lithosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldemberg, J., 2007, Ethanol for a sustainable energy future: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 315, p. 808–810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koh, L.P., and Wilcove, D.S., 2007, Cashing in palm oil for conservation: Nature, v. 448, p. 993–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mohn, F., Handler, D., and Brennecke, J., 2015, Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided slicing specifies transcripts for Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA biogenesis: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 348, p. 812–817.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Riewald, M., Petrovan, R.J., Donner, A., Mueller, B.M., and Ruf, W., 2002, Activation of endothelial cell protease activated receptor 1 by the protein C pathway: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 296, p. 1880–1882.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vorbrüggen, H., 2005, Silicon-Mediated Transformations of Functional Groups: Weinheim, FRG, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Motreanu, D., 2014, Topological and Variational Methods with Applications to Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems (V. V. Motreanu & N. Papageorgiou, Eds.): New York, NY, Springer, XI, 459 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Tololyan, K., 2005, Armenian Diaspora, in Ember, M., Ember, C.R., and Skoggard, I. eds., Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, Boston, MA, Springer US, p. 35–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lithosphere.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, You Probably Haven’t Heard Of These Five Amazing Women Scientists – So Pay Attention: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007, Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-07-459T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Levy, M.R., 2009, Visual perception and Gestalt grouping in the landscape: Are Gestalt grouping prinicples reliable indicators of visual preference? [Doctoral dissertation]: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2016, Just What the Candidate Ordered: New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldemberg, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Goldemberg, 2007; Koh and Wilcove, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Koh and Wilcove, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Riewald et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLithosphere
ISSN (print)1941-8264
ISSN (online)1947-4253

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