How to format your references using the Lithosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lithosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forrest, L.R., 2013, Structural biology. (Pseudo-)symmetrical transport: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 339, p. 399–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hornby, G.S., and Kurtoglu, T., 2009, Computer science. Toward a smarter Web: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 325, p. 277–278.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, B.K., Siprashvili, Z., and Khavari, P.A., 2014, Advances in skin grafting and treatment of cutaneous wounds: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 346, p. 941–945.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hahnloser, R.H., Sarpeshkar, R., Mahowald, M.A., Douglas, R.J., and Seung, H.S., 2000, Digital selection and analogue amplification coexist in a cortex-inspired silicon circuit: Nature, v. 405, p. 947–951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S., and Liu, Y., 2011, Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly: Singapore, John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Bellatreche, L., and Mohania, M.K. (Eds.), 2013, Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery: 15th International Conference, DaWaK 2013, Prague, Czech Republic, August 26-29, 2013. Proceedings: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, v. 8057, XIV, 374 p. 129 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Zheng, Y., and Jamil, S., 2012, Beyond Efficiency: China’s Energy Saving and Emission Reduction Initiatives vis-à-vis Human Development, in Caballero-Anthony, M., Chang, Y., and Putra, N.A. eds., Rethinking Energy Security in Asia: A Non-Traditional View of Human Security, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, p. 79–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lithosphere.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016, Flesh-Eating Parasite Returns To The US, Half A Century After Being Eradicated: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981, Comments on H.R. 5103, Mineta letter: U.S. Government Printing Office CBD-2-63.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Decker, K.M., 2013, A study of relationships between counselor education, social justice advocacy competence, and likelihood to advocate [Doctoral dissertation]: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2008, Firefighters Museum Plans to Expand Again: New York Times, p. LI11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Forrest, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hornby and Kurtoglu, 2009; Forrest, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hornby and Kurtoglu, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Hahnloser et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLithosphere
ISSN (print)1941-8264
ISSN (online)1947-4253

Other styles