How to format your references using the Lithosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lithosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann, K., 2003, Anthropology. New Guinea: a cradle of agriculture: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 301, p. 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peña, J.L., and Konishi, M., 2001, Auditory spatial receptive fields created by multiplication: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 292, p. 249–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishiyama, T., Ohsumi, K., and Kishimoto, T., 2007, Phosphorylation of Erp1 by p90rsk is required for cytostatic factor arrest in Xenopus laevis eggs: Nature, v. 446, p. 1096–1099.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Castro, R.F., Jackson, K.A., Goodell, M.A., Robertson, C.S., Liu, H., and Shine, H.D., 2002, Failure of bone marrow cells to transdifferentiate into neural cells in vivo: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 297, p. 1299.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
French, M., Szepesvári, C., and Rogers, E., 2005, Performance of Nonlinear Approximate Adaptive Controllers: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dignum, V., Noriega, P., Sensoy, M., and Sichman, J.S. (Eds.), 2016, Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Agent Systems XI: COIN 2015 International Workshops, COIN@AAMAS, Istanbul, Turkey, May 4, 2015, COIN@IJCAI, Buenos Aires, Argentina, July 26, 2015, Revised Selected Papers: Cham, Springer International Publishing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, v. 9628, XII, 437 p. 119 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
See, S.F., Schoppmann, S.F., Riegler, M., and Zacherl, J., 2012, Radiofrequency Ablation and Antireflux Management for Non-dysplastic Barrett’s Esophagus, in Bonavina, L. ed., Innovation in Esophageal Surgery, Milano, Springer, p. 27–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lithosphere.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017, Here’s A Bunch Of Things That Are Scientifically Proven To Make You Happy: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992, Transportation Infrastructure: The Nation’s Highway Bridges Remain at Risk From Earthquakes: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-92-59.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phillips, T.L., 2012, “Outsider Within” Narratives of Diversity Leadership: An Exploratory Case Study of Executive Women of Color [Doctoral dissertation]: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S., 2016, Depicting the Heavens With Paint, Pencil, Even Cocaine: New York Times, p. WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Neumann, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Peña and Konishi, 2001; Neumann, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peña and Konishi, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Castro et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleLithosphere
ISSN (print)1941-8264
ISSN (online)1947-4253

Other styles