How to format your references using the Lithosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lithosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bell, G., 2001, Neutral macroecology: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 293, p. 2413–2418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petersen, C.P., and Reddien, P.W., 2011, Polarized notum activation at wounds inhibits Wnt function to promote planarian head regeneration: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 332, p. 852–855.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jones, M.H., Bewsher, D., and Brown, D.S., 2013, Imaging of a circumsolar dust ring near the orbit of Venus: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 342, p. 960–963.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tan, X.H., Chan, S.F., Han, K., and Xu, H., 2014, Combined effects of magnetic interaction and domain wall pinning on the coercivity in a bulk Nd₆₀Fe₃₀Al₁₀ ferromagnet: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 6805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitrapu, P., 2005, Wideband TDD: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Clark, W.W., II (Ed.), 2013, The Next Economics: Global Cases in Energy, Environment, and Climate Change: New York, NY, Springer, XVI, 292 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Davis, A.E., Longest, K.C., Kim, P.H., and Aldrich, H.E., 2009, Owner Contributions and Equity, in Curtin, R.T. and Reynolds, P.D. eds., New Firm Creation in the United States: Initial Explorations with the PSED II Data Set, New York, NY, Springer, p. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lithosphere.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015, Sexual Satisfaction Correlates With Intelligence: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994, Highway Contracting: Disadvantaged Business Program Meets Contract Goal, but Refinements Are Needed: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-94-168.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao, W., 2010, The epitope specificity of the human anti-Candida albicans antibody M1g1 [Doctoral dissertation]: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S.K., 2003, World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Reaches Out To Vatican: New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bell, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Bell, 2001; Petersen and Reddien, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petersen and Reddien, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Tan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLithosphere
ISSN (print)1941-8264
ISSN (online)1947-4253

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