How to format your references using the Lithosphere citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Lithosphere. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benton, M.J., 2009, The Red Queen and the Court Jester: species diversity and the role of biotic and abiotic factors through time: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 323, p. 728–732.
A journal article with 2 authors
Piotrowska, K., and Zernicka-Goetz, M., 2001, Role for sperm in spatial patterning of the early mouse embryo: Nature, v. 409, p. 517–521.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kayukawa, T., Tateishi, K., and Shinoda, T., 2013, Establishment of a versatile cell line for juvenile hormone signaling analysis in Tribolium castaneum: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 1570.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shanahan, T.M., Overpeck, J.T., Anchukaitis, K.J., Beck, J.W., Cole, J.E., Dettman, D.L., Peck, J.A., Scholz, C.A., and King, J.W., 2009, Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 324, p. 377–380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Patterson, S.J., and Radtke, J.M., 2009, Strategic Communications for Nonprofit Organizations: Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gupta, S.P. (Ed.), 2006, QSAR and Molecular Modeling Studies in Heterocyclic Drugs II: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry, v. 4, XVI, 298 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Bindewald, J.M., Peterson, G.L., and Miller, M.E., 2015, Trajectory Generation with Player Modeling, in Barbosa, D. and Milios, E. eds., Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 28th Canadian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Canadian AI 2015, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, June 2-5, 2015, Proceedings, Cham, Springer International Publishing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, p. 42–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Lithosphere.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016, Large Human Brains May Have Evolved In Order To Judge Others: IFLScience, (accessed October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012, Transportation: Key Issues and Management Challenges: U.S. Government Printing Office GAO-12-581T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theodore, J.A., 2014, A Framework for Comparative Analysis of Gene Expressions and Mutations Linked to Cancer [Doctoral dissertation]: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006, The Power of the Adolescent Pen: New York Times, p. 14LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benton, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Piotrowska and Zernicka-Goetz, 2001; Benton, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Piotrowska and Zernicka-Goetz, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Shanahan et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleLithosphere
ISSN (print)1941-8264
ISSN (online)1947-4253

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